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1. chinaXiv:201811.00111 [pdf]

Microbial adaptation to long-term N supply prevents large responses in N dynamics and N losses of a subtropical forest

Han, Xiaodge; Shen, Weijun; Zhang, Jinbo; Muller, Christoph
Subjects: Biology >> Biochemistry

Atmospherically-deposited nitrogen (N) can stimulate complex soil N metabolisms and accumulations over time. Whether long-term (decadal) N deposition effects on soil N transformations and functional microbes differ from the short-term (annual) effects have rarely been assessed. Here we conducted a laboratory 15N tracing study with soil samples from a short-term (one year) N addition site and a long-term (12 years) site in a subtropical forest. The effects of simulated N deposition on soil N2O emissions, N transformation rates and microbial nitrifying and denitrifying genes were determined. Our results showed that: (1) long-term N addition did not change soil N2O fluxes significantly in comparison to the short-term N addition. Denitrification, heterotrophic nitrification and autotrophic nitrification contributed 53%, 23% and 18% to total N2O emissions, respectively. (2) Autotrophic nitrification was the dominant N transformation process, except for the high-N treatment at the long-term site. The magnitude of soil N transformation rates was significantly different among N addition treatments but not between short- and long-term N addition sites. However, long-term N addition changed the responses of specific N transformation rates to N addition markedly, especially for the rates of nitrification, organic N mineralization to NH4+, NO3- immobilization and dissimilatory NO3- reduction to NH4+ (DNRA). (3) Responses of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB) were stronger than denitrifying N2O-producers (nirK) and denitrifying N2O-reducers (nosZ) at the long-term site compared to the short-term site. (4) The close correlations among N2O flux, functional genes and soil properties observed at the short-term site was weakened at the long-term site, posing a decreased risk for N losses in the acid subtropical forest soils. There is evidence for an adaptation of functional microbial communities to the prevailing soil conditions and in response to long-term natural and anthropogenic N depositions.

submitted time 2018-11-22 Hits686Downloads316 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201810.00184 [pdf]

Simulating hydrological responses to climate change using dynamic and statistical downscaling methods: a case study in the Kaidu River Basin, Xinjiang, China

BA Wulong; DU Pengfei; LIU Tie; BAO Anming; LUO Min; Mujtaba HASSAN; QIN Chengxin
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Climate change may affect water resources by altering various processes in natural ecosystems. Dynamic and statistical downscaling methods are commonly used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources. Objectively, both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we assessed the impacts of climate change on water resources during the future periods (2020–2029 and 2040–2049) in the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin, Xinjiang, China, and discussed the uncertainties in the research processes by integrating dynamic and statistical downscaling methods (regional climate models (RCMs) and general circulation modes (GCMs)) and utilizing these outputs. The reference period for this study is 1990–1999. The climate change trend is represented by three bias-corrected RCMs (i.e., Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 regional climate model (HadGEM3-RA), Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4), and Seoul National University Meso-scale Model version 5 (SUN-MM5)) and an ensemble of GCMs on the basis of delta change method under two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). We applied the hydrological SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model which uses the RCMs/GCMs outputs as input to analyze the impacts of climate change on the stream flow and peak flow of the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin. The simulation of climate factors under future scenarios indicates that both temperature and precipitation in the study area will increase in the future compared with the reference period, with the largest increase of annual mean temperature and largest percentage increase of mean annual precipitation being of 2.4°C and 38.4%, respectively. Based on the results from bias correction of climate model outputs, we conclude that the accuracy of RCM (regional climate model) simulation is much better for temperature than for precipitation. The percentage increase in precipitation simulated by the three RCMs is generally higher than that simulated by the ensemble of GCMs. As for the changes in seasonal precipitation, RCMs exhibit a large percentage increase in seasonal precipitation in the wet season, while the ensemble of GCMs shows a large percentage increase in the dry season. Most of the hydrological simulations indicate that the total stream flow will decrease in the future due to the increase of evaporation, and the maximum percentage decrease can reach up to 22.3%. The possibility of peak flow increasing in the future is expected to higher than 99%. These results indicate that less water is likely to be available in the upper reaches of the Kaidu River Basin in the future, and that the temporal distribution of flow may become more concentrated.

submitted time 2018-10-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2913Downloads352 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201810.00188 [pdf]

Seasonal differences in climatic controls of vegetation growth in the Beijing–Tianjin Sand Source Region of China

SHAN, Lishan; YU, Xiang; SUN, Lingxiao; HE, Bin; WANG, Haiyan; XIE, Tingting
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Launched in 2002, the Beiing–Tianjin Sand Source Control Project (BTSSCP) is an ecological restoration project intended to prevent desertification in China. Evidence from multiple sources has confirmed increases in vegetation growth in the BTSSCP region since the initiation of this project. Precipitation and essential climate variable-soil moisture (ECV-SM) conditions are typically considered to be the main drivers of vegetation growth in this region. Although many studies have investigated the inter-annual variations of vegetation growth, few concerns have been focused on the annual and seasonal variations of vegetation growth and their climatic drivers, which are crucial for understanding the relationships among the climate, vegetation, and human activities at the regional scale. Based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from MODIS and the corresponding climatic data, we explored the responses of vegetation growth to climatic factors at annual and seasonal scales in the BTSSCP region during the period 2000–2014. Over the study region as a whole, NDVI generally increased from 2000 to 2014, at a rate of 0.002/a. Vegetation growth is stimulated mainly by the elevated temperature in spring, whereas precipitation is the leading driver of summer greening. In autumn, positive effects of both temperature and precipitation on vegetation growth were observed. The warming in spring promotes vegetation growth but reduces ECV-SM. Summer greening has a strong cooling effect on land surface temperature. These results indicate that the ecological and environmental consequences of ecological restoration projects should be comprehensively evaluated.

submitted time 2018-10-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3404Downloads335 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201810.00189 [pdf]

Sap flow characteristics and physiological adjustments of two dominant tree species in pure and mixed plantations in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China

TANG Yakun; WU Xu; CHEN Yunming
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

It is essential to understand the water consumption characteristics and physiological adjustments of tree species under drought conditions, as well as the effects of pure and mixed plantations on these characteristics in semi-arid regions. In this study, the normalized sap flow (SFn), leaf water potential, stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic rate (Pr) were monitored for two dominant species, i.e., Pinus tabuliformis and Hippophae rhamnoides, in both pure and mixed plantations in a semi-arid region of Chinese Loess Plateau. A threshold-delay model showed that the lower rainfall thresholds (RL) for P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides in pure plantations were 9.6 and 11.0 mm, respectively, and the time lags (τ) after rainfall were 1.15 and 1.76 d for corresponding species, respectively. The results indicated that P. tabuliformis was more sensitive to rainfall pulse than H. rhamnoides. In addition, strong stomatal control allowed P. tabuliformis to experience low gs and Pr in response to drought, while maintaining a high midday leaf water potential (Ψm). However, H. rhamnoides maintained high gs and Pr at a low Ψm expense. Therefore, P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides can be considered as isohydric and anisohydric species, respectively. In mixed plantation, the values of RL for P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides were 6.5 and 8.9 mm, respectively; and the values of τ were 0.86 and 1.61 d for corresponding species, respectively, which implied that mixed afforestation enhanced the rainfall pulse sensitivity for both two species, especially for P. tabuliformis. In addition, mixed afforestation significantly reduced SFn, gs, and Pr for P. tabuliformis (P<0.05), while maintaining a high leaf water potential status. However, no significant effect of mixed afforestation of H. rhamnoides was observed at the expense of leaf water potential status in response to drought. Although inconsistent physiological responses were adopted by these species, the altered water consumption characteristics, especially for P. tabuliformis indicated that the mixed afforestation requires further investigation.

submitted time 2018-10-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2220Downloads207 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201805.00539 [pdf]

Enhancement of the Prediction Accuracy of Pole Coordinates withEmpirical Mode Decomposition

Zhao Danning; Lei Yu; CaiHongbing
Subjects: Astronomy >> Astrophysical processes

This paper is aimed at separation treatment of low- and high-frequency components in polar motion forecasting and thenimproving time-series predictions. For the purpose, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is employed as a filter to extract low- and high-frequency signals from original pole coordinate data. The decomposition of the pole motion observations between 1986 and 2015 from the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) C04 seriesillustrates that the low-frequency fluctuations including inter-decadal, inter-annual, Chandler and annual wobbles and shorter-period high-frequency oscillationscan be separated from the observed time-series by the EMD. On the basis of separation, the least-squares (LS) extrapolation of models for annual and Chandler wobbles and for the linear trend are used for deterministic prediction of the low-frequency fluctuations, while the autoregressive (AR) technology is applied to forecasting the high-frequency oscillations plus LS fitting residuals. Pole coordinateforecasts are calculated as the sum of LS extrapolation and AR predictions (LS+AR).We have evaluated the accuracy of our long-term predictions (up to 1 year in the future) in comparison with the IERS official predictions in terms of year-by-year statistics of 5 years. It is shown that the accuracy of the LS+AR methodcan be significantly improved using a combination of the EMD and LS+AR (EMD+LS+AR). Also, the proposed prediction strategyoverall outperforms the IERS solutions. In addition, the predictions are compared with those from the Earth Orientation Parameters Prediction Comparison Campaign (EOP PCC). The comparison demonstrates that the developed schemeis a very accurate approach to predict polar motion. According to this study, it is concluded that polar motion predictions may be enhanced through separation treatment of different time-scale fluctuations and thus such processing seems to be necessary in pole coordinate prediction.

submitted time 2018-05-28 From cooperative journals:《天文研究与技术》 Hits3689Downloads217 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201805.00406 [pdf]

Solute transport characteristics of a deep soil profile in the Loess Plateau, China

WANG Jiao; SHAO Ming'an
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Understanding solute transport behaviors of deep soil profile in the Loess Plateau is helpful for ecological construction and agricultural production improvement. In this study, solute transport processes of a deep soil profile were measured by a conservative tracer experiment using 25 undisturbed soil cores (20 cm long and 7 cm diameter for each) continuously sampled from the surface downward to the depth of 500 cm in the Loess Plateau of China. The solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed in terms of the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the mobile-immobile model (MIM). Average pore-water velocity and dispersion coefficient (or effective dispersion coefficient) were calculated using the CDE and MIM. Basic soil properties and water infiltration parameters were also determined to explore their influence on the solute transport parameters. Both pore-water velocity and dispersion coefficient (or effective dispersion coefficient) generally decreased with increasing depth, and the dispersivity fluctuated along the soil profile. There was a good linear correlation between log-transformed pore-water velocity and dispersion coefficient, with a slope of about 1.0 and an average dispersivity of 0.25 for the entire soil profile. Generally speaking, the soil was more homogeneous along the soil profile. Our results also show that hydrodynamic dispersion is the dominant mechanism of solute transport of loess soils in the study area.

submitted time 2018-05-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits815Downloads421 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201805.00407 [pdf]

Effects of grazing on net primary productivity, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in the grasslands of Xinjiang

HUANG, Xiaotao; LUO, Geping; YE, Feipeng; HAN, Qifei
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Grazing is a main human activity in the grasslands of Xinjiang. It is vital to identify the effects of grazing on the sustainable utilization of local grasslands. However, the effects of grazing on net primary productivity (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) in this region remain unclear. Using the spatial Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on NPP, ET and WUE across the different regions and grassland types in Xinjiang during 1979–2012. NPP, ET and WUE under the grazed scenario were generally lower than those under the ungrazed scenario, and the differences showed increasing trends over time. The decreases in NPP, ET and WUE varied significantly among the regions and grassland types. NPP decreased as follows: among the regions, Northern Xinjiang (16.60 g C/(m2•a)), Tianshan Mountains (15.94 g C/(m2•a)) and Southern Xinjiang (−3.54 g C/(m2•a)); and among the grassland types, typical grasslands (25.70 g C/(m2•a)), swamp meadows (25.26 g C/(m2•a)), mid-mountain meadows (23.39 g C/(m2•a)), alpine meadows (6.33 g C/(m2•a)), desert grasslands (5.82 g C/(m2•a)) and saline meadows (2.90 g C/(m2•a)). ET decreased as follows: among the regions, Tianshan Mountains (28.95 mm/a), Northern Xinjiang (8.11 mm/a) and Southern Xinjiang (7.57 mm/a); and among the grassland types, mid-mountain meadows (29.30 mm/a), swamp meadows (25.07 mm/a), typical grasslands (24.56 mm/a), alpine meadows (20.69 mm/a), desert grasslands (11.06 mm/a) and saline meadows (3.44 mm/a). WUE decreased as follows: among the regions, Northern Xinjiang (0.053 g C/kg H2O), Tianshan Mountains (0.034 g C/kg H2O) and Southern Xinjiang (0.012 g C/kg H2O); and among the grassland types, typical grasslands (0.0609 g C/kg H2O), swamp meadows (0.0548 g C/kg H2O), mid-mountain meadows (0.0501 g C/kg H2O), desert grasslands (0.0172 g C/kg H2O), alpine meadows (0.0121 g C/kg H2O) and saline meadows (0.0067 g C/kg H2O). In general, the decreases in NPP and WUE were more significant in the regions with relatively high levels of vegetation growth because of the high grazing intensity in these regions. The decreases in ET were significant in mountainous areas due to the terrain and high grazing intensity.

submitted time 2018-05-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits741Downloads361 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201804.02343 [pdf]

Variations of precipitation characteristics during the period 1960–2014 in the Source Region of the Yellow River, China

IQBAL, Mudassar ; WEN, Jun; WANG, Shaoping; TIAN, Hui; ADNAN, Muhammad
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Precipitation, a natural feature of weather systems in the Earth, is vitally important for the environment of any region. Under global climate change condition, the characteristics of precipitation have changed as a consequence of enhanced global hydrological cycle. The source region of the Yellow River (SRYR), locating within the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is sensitive to the global climate change due to its complex orography and fragile ecosystem. To understand the precipitation characteristics and its impacts on the environment in the region, we studied the characteristics of rainy days and precipitation amount of different precipitation classes, such as light (0–5 and 5–10 mm), moderate (10–15, 15–20 and 20–25 mm) and heavy (≥25 mm) rains by analyzing the precipitation data of typical meteorological stations in the SRYR during the period 1961–2014, as well as the trends of persistent rainfall events and drought events. Results showed that annual average precipitation in this area had a non-significant (P>0.05) increasing trend, and 82.5% of the precipitation occurred from May to September. Rainy days of the 0–5 mm precipitation class significantly decreased, whereas the rainy days of 5–10, 10–15, and 20–25 mm precipitation classes increased and that of ≥25 mm precipitation class decreased insignificantly. The persistent rainfall events of 1- or 2-day and more than 2-day showed an increasing trend, with the 1- or 2-day events being more frequent. Meanwhile, the number of short drought periods (≤10 days) increased while long drought periods (>10 days) decreased. Since the 0–5 mm precipitation class had a huge impact on the grasslands productivity; the 5–10, 10–15, and 20–25 mm precipitation classes had positive effects on vegetation which rely on the deep soil water through moving nutrients and water into the root zone of these vegetation or through the plant-microbe interactions; the ≥25 mm precipitation class contributed to the floods; and more persistent rainfall events and fewer long drought events inferred positive effects on agriculture. Thus, these results indicate grassland degradation, less risk of floods, and the upgrading impact of climate change on agriculture. This study may provide scientific knowledge for policymakers to sustain the eco-environmental resources in the SYSR.

submitted time 2018-04-24 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1223Downloads413 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201801.00773 [pdf]

Vertical distribution and storage of soil organic and inorganic carbon in a typical inland river basin, Northwest China

YANG Fan; HUANG Laiming; YANG Renmin; YANG Fei; LI Decheng; ZHAO Yuguo; YANG Jinling; LIU Feng; ZHANG Ganlin
Subjects: Agriculture, Forestry,Livestock & Aquatic Products Science >> Soil Science

Knowledge of soil carbon (C) distribution and its relationship with the environment can improve our understanding of its biogeochemical cycling and help to establish sound regional models of C cycling. However, such knowledge is limited in environments with complex landscape configurations. In this study, we investigated the vertical distribution and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in the 10 representative landscapes (alpine meadow, subalpine shrub and meadow, mountain grassland, mountain forest, typical steppe, desert steppe, Hexi Corridor oases cropland, Ruoshui River delta desert, Alxa Gobi desert, and sandy desert) with contrasting bioclimatic regimes in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. We also measured the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in soil carbonate to understand the sources of SIC because the ratio can be used as a proxy in calculating the contribution of pedogenic inorganic carbon (PIC) to total SIC. Our results showed that SOC contents generally decreased with increasing soil depth in all landscapes, while SIC contents exhibited more complicated variations along soil profiles in relation to pedogenic processes and parent materials at the various landscapes. There were significant differences of C stocks in the top meter among different landscapes, with SOC storage ranging from 0.82 kg C/m2 in sandy desert to 50.48 kg C/m2 in mountain forest and SIC storage ranging from 0.19 kg C/m2 in alpine meadow to 21.91 kg C/m2 in desert steppe. SIC contributed more than 75% of total C pool when SOC storage was lower than 10 kg C/m2, and the proportion of PIC to SIC was greater than 70% as calculated from Sr isotopic ratio, suggesting the critical role of PIC in the C budget of this region. The considerable variations of SOC and SIC in different landscapes were attributed to different pedogenic environments resulted from contrasting climatic regimes, parent materials and vegetation types. This study provides an evidence for a general trade-off pattern between SOC and SIC, showing the compensatory effects of environmental conditions (especially climate) on SOC and SIC formation in these landscapes. This is largely attributed to the fact that the overall decrease in temperature and increase in precipitation from arid deserts to alpine mountains simultaneously facilitate the accumulation of SOC and depletion of SIC.

submitted time 2018-01-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2567Downloads533 Comment 1

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