Current Location:home > Browse

1. chinaXiv:201612.00086 [pdf]

PROPAGATION OF THE 2012 MARCH CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE SUN TO HELIOPAUSE

Liu, Ying D.; Richardson, John D.; Wang, Chi; Luhmann, Janet G.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

In 2012 March the Sun exhibited extraordinary activities. In particular, the active region NOAA AR 11429 emitted a series of large coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which were imaged by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory as it rotated with the Sun from the east to west. These sustained eruptions are expected to generate a global shell of disturbed material sweeping through the heliosphere. A cluster of shocks and interplanetary CMEs were observed near the Earth, and are propagated outward from 1 AU using an MHD model. The transient streams interact with each other, which erases memory of the source and results in a large merged interaction region (MIR) with a preceding shock. The MHD model predicts that the shock and MIR would reach 120 AU around 2013 April 22, which agrees well with the period of radio emissions and the time of a transient disturbance in galactic cosmic rays detected by Voyager 1. These results are important for understanding the "fate" of CMEs in the outer heliosphere and provide confidence that the heliopause is located around 120 AU from the Sun.

submitted time 2016-12-22 Hits418Downloads257 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01577 [pdf]

PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN RELATION TO GEOMAGNETIC STORM INTENSITY AND VARIABILITY

Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with D-st minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively;(2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm;and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the "perfect storm" scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the "perfect storm" scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits449Downloads278 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01562 [pdf]

IMPACT OF PICKUP IONS ON THE SHOCK FRONT NONSTATIONARITY AND ENERGY DISSIPATION OF THE HELIOSPHERIC TERMINATION SHOCK: TWO-DIMENSIONAL FULL PARTICLE SIMULATIONS AND COMPARISON WITH VOYAGER 2 OBSERVATIONS

Yang, Zhongwei; Liu, Ying D.; Richardson, John D.; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Rui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Voyager 2 (V2) observed multiple crossings of the heliospheric termination shock (TS) on 2007 August 31-September 1 at a distance of 84 AU from the Sun. Here, for the first time, we present two-dimensional particle-incell (PIC) simulations of the TS self-consistently including pickup ions (PUIs), and compare the simulation results with V2 observations. We find that (1) PUIs play a key role in the energy dissipation of the TS, and most of the incident ion kinetic energy is transferred to the thermal energy of PUIs. The PIC simulation indicates that, for the upstream parameters chosen for V2 conditions, the density of PUIs is about 25% and the PUIs gain the largest fraction (approximately 86.6%) of downstream thermal pressure. (2) The simulated heliosheath ion distribution function is a superposition of a cold core formed by transmitted solar wind ions (SWIs), with the shoulders contributed by the hot reflected SWIs and directly transmitted PUIs, and the wings of the distribution dominated by the very hot reflected PUIs. The V2 Faraday cups observed the cool core of the distribution, and so they only saw the tip of the iceberg. (3) The nonstationarity of the shock front is mainly caused by ripples along the shock front which form even if the percentage of PUIs is high. These simulation results agree reasonably well with the V2 experimental data. The relevance of the shock front ripples to the multiple TS crossings observed by V2 is also discussed in this paper.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits371Downloads224 Comment 0

  [1 Pages/ 3 Totals]