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1. chinaXiv:201907.00005 [pdf]

中国医患信任量表的初步编制与信效度检验

吕小康; 弥明迪; 余华冉; 王晖; 姜鹤; 何非
Comment:本文拟发表于《中国社会心理学评论》,刊次、页码及内容以发表版本为准。
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

为编制中国医患信任量表,预测试经项目分析、探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析,确立了患方信任量表中预设性信任分量表的9个条目和现实性信任分量表的13个条目,以及医方信任量表8个条目,并以此在全国范围内以便利抽样方式对2658名患方和1229名医方有效被试进行初测。预测试和初测结果均表明,患方信任量表只能作为单维度总加量表,而医方信任量表可分为“关系感知”和“防御心态”两个维度。患方预设性信任分量表、患方现实性信任分量表和医方信任量表的内部一致性系数分别为0.71、0.85和0.63,效标效度和验证性因素分析的各项参数均在可接受范围,专家评定效度良好。患方预设性信任分量表可用于从群际层面了解患方对医生群体的一般信任水平,现实性信任分量表可用于从人际层面了解患方对具体医生的特殊信任水平;医方信任量表可用于评估医师对其所接诊的患方个体的信任度;结合三者可评估医患双方的信任匹配度。

submitted time 2019-08-14 Hits2439Downloads145 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201908.00028 [pdf]

High Focusing-reflection Subwavelength Gratings with Uni-traveling-carrier Photodetector for High Responsivity

Chen, Qingtao
Subjects: Electronics and Communication Technology >> Optoelectronics and Laser

High focusing-reflection, non-periodic high-contrast grating integrated with a uni-traveling-carrier photodetector (FR-UTC-PD) is proposed to overcome the bandwidth-responsivity trade-off. The responsivity of the FR-UTC-PD is increased by 36.5% while achieving a 3-dB bandwidth of 18 GHz.

submitted time 2019-08-13 Hits1254Downloads48 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201905.00003 [pdf]

急性应激损害对威胁刺激的注意解除

罗禹; 念靖晴; 鲍未; 张静静; 赵守盈; 潘运; 许爽; 张禹
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

急性应激会增强个体对威胁刺激的注意偏向,但急性应激是增强了对威胁刺激的注意定向还是损害了对威胁刺激的注意解除还不清楚。本研究采用社会评估冷压任务和点探测任务,结合事件相关电位技术,考察急性应激对威胁刺激注意偏向影响的认知机制。在进行社会评估冷压任务后,应激组个体的状态焦虑和皮质醇浓度显著升高。在注意偏向中,应激组注意解除比控制组更慢,在注意定向上应激组和控制组无显著差异。ERP结果上,应激组比控制组诱发了更负的SPCN,在N2pc上没有显著差异,两组皮质醇增量的差异和N2pc、SPCN的组间差异均有显著正相关。这些结果说明,急性应激增强对威胁刺激的注意偏向是因为其损害个体对威胁刺激的注意解除,这可能是因为急性应激损害了与注意解除相关的额—顶网络的功能所致。

submitted time 2019-08-05 Hits5202Downloads396 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201907.00014 [pdf]

Remedial dosing recommendations for valproic acid in nonadherence patients with epilepsy

Chenyu,Wang; Jun-jie Ding; Zheng Jiao; Er-qian Yu; Guo-xing Zhu
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Clinical Medicine

Objective: This study investigated the effect of delayed or missed doses on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of valproic acid (VPA) in patients with epilepsy and established remedial dosing recommendations for nonadherence patients. Methods: The Monte Carlo simulations based on all previous population pharmacokinetic models for pediatric, adult and elder patients with epilepsy receiving valproic acid, which is the most commonly used first-line AED. The following three remedial approaches were investigated for each delayed dose: A) A partial dose was administered immediately, and the regular dose was administered at the next scheduled time. B) The delayed dose was administered immediately, followed by a partial dose at the next scheduled time. C) The delayed and partial doses were coadministered immediately, the next scheduled dose was skipped, and the regular dosing was resumed at the subsequent scheduled time. Results: The most appropriate remedial regimen was that with the shortest deviation time from the therapeutic window. The effect of nonadherence on PK was dependent on the delay duration and daily dose, and the recommended remedial dose was related to the delay duration and concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Remedial dosing strategies A and B were almost equivalent, whereas C showed a larger PK deviation time. If one dose was missed, double doses were not recommended for the next scheduled time. Significance: Simulations provide quantitative insight into the remedial regimens for nonadherence patients and clinicians should select the optimal regimen based on the status of patients

submitted time 2019-07-21 Hits1689Downloads89 Comment 1

5. chinaXiv:201705.00826 [pdf]

Relative Entropy Minimizing-Based Theory of Intelligent Systems

Xi, Guangcheng
Subjects: Mathematics >> Statistics and Probability

Based on the point of view of neuroethology and cognition-psychology, general frame of theory for intelligent systems is presented by means of principle of relative entropy minimizing in this paper. Cream of the general frame of theory is to present and to prove basic principle of intelligent systems: entropy increases or decreases together with intelligence in the intelligent systems. The basic principle is of momentous theoretical significance and practical significance .From the basic principle can not only derive two kind of learning algorithms (statistical simulating annealing algorithms and annealing algorithms of mean-field theory approximation) for training large kinds of stochastic neural networks,but also can thoroughly dispel misgivings created by second law of thermodynamics on 'peoplespsychology ,hence make one be fully confident of facing life.Because of Human society, natural world, and even universe all are intelligent systems.

submitted time 2019-07-21 Hits2139Downloads850 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201904.00092 [pdf]

反驳文本对患方信任和道德判断的影响与机制

吕小康; 付春野; 汪新建
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

采用反驳文本范式对患方进行知识修正,提升患方对医方的信任和道德判断。预实验编制反驳文本并验证其有效性,实验1验证反驳文本可以显著提高患方的对医信任和道德判断,并发现医疗结果是影响患方信任和对医道德判断的重要因素。实验2和实验3探究了反驳文本有效性的作用机制及适用普遍性,发现不确定性容忍度和宽容度在反驳文本和患方信任及道德判断之间呈链式中介作用,且反驳文本可脱离医学情境提升普遍患方信任。

submitted time 2019-07-10 Hits9154Downloads1307 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201807.00067 [pdf]

基于SCM不同热情-能力社会群体刻板印象激活效应的行为模式

杨亚平; 徐强; 朱婷婷; 郑旭涛; 董晓晔; 陈庆伟
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

刻板印象激活是社会知觉中的至关重要的认知过程, 以往关于刻板印象激活的研究主要聚焦于某一类或两类社会群体, 导致对于刻板印象激活缺乏整体性的认识。本研究立足于经典的用于分类社会群体的刻板印象内容模型(SCM), 采用启动-靶子一致性判断任务和词汇判断任务, 分别从外显和内隐两个层面对该模型下不同热情-能力的四类社会群体刻板印象激活效应的行为模式进行系统的探讨。结果发现, 无论是外显层面还是内隐层面, 高热情-高能力、高热情-低能力、低热情-高能力三类社会群体均遵循经典的刻板印象激活模式——一致条件下的反应更快更准确;而低热情-低能力群体则在外显和內隐加工上均表现出刻板印象激活效应的反转模式——冲突条件下比一致条件下的反应更快更准确。本研究拓宽了刻板印象激活的研究视角, 首次发现低热情-低能力群体具有与传统相反的刻板印象激活效应模式, 这一结果为该群体加工的特异性提供了新的证据。未来研究可以从注意和厌恶情绪的角度对刻板印象激活效应反转模式的加工机制进行深入探讨。

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits9380Downloads2250 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201903.00218 [pdf]

情绪效价、唤醒度和有无评价影响手部动作

唐日新; 李佳佳; 王志鹏
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

研究探讨情绪正-负效价、唤醒度水平(高、中、低)以及有意识评价对推拉动作的影响。分三个实验进行,收集反应时(RT)和手部动作指标等。实验一使用正-负效价下高、中、低唤醒水平的图片进行评价并执行推-拉动作任务;实验二使用中性图片和灰色空白图片完成相同任务;实验三在不进行效价评估情况下完成推-拉动作。结果表明(1)情绪效价对反应时,运动时间和到达峰速时间等有显著影响:向上拖动图片时,消极图片拖得更快;向下拖动时,则积极图片更快。(2)情绪唤醒度调节情绪效价对推-拉动作的作用:唤醒度越高,情绪效价尤其是负性情绪对推-拉动作的作用越大;反之,则作用越小。(3)无评价条件下,情绪效价对推-拉动作无显著影响;即情绪对动作的影响需要在有意识评价的参与。这些结果说明情绪对推拉动作影响可能发生在早期,不仅影响动作计划,而且影响到随后动作的执行,而高唤醒度和有意识评价增强了这种影响。

submitted time 2019-06-15 Hits7742Downloads1120 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201906.00003 [pdf]

领导幽默的影响效果及其理论解释

王婷; 杨付
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

领导幽默(leader humor),作为一种有效的管理工具和手段,近年来受到了理论界和实务界的广泛关注。在回顾领导幽默概念的基础上,深入探究了领导幽默的影响效果及其作用机制,总结发现领导幽默相关研究主要围绕七种视角展开,分别是关系过程视角、社会交换理论、社会信息加工理论、关系认同视角、积极情绪视角、压力释放视角以及领导风格类型视角。未来研究应基于互动和结构的视角探讨领导幽默的影响效果以及基于社会信息加工理论关注领导幽默的作用机制。

submitted time 2019-06-07 Hits1862Downloads212 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201809.00177 [pdf]

心理学研究的元分析报告标准:现状与建议

刘宇; 陈树铨; 樊富珉; 邸新; 范会勇; 封春亮; 甘怡群; 李会杰; 吕小康; 任志洪; 徐鹏飞; 袁博; 左西年; 胡传鹏
Subjects: Psychology >> Statistics in Psychology

元分析通过综合实证研究结果,积累证据、去伪存真,在研究与实践中有着非常重要的作用。但元分析的过程繁复、方法多样,其执行上的严谨性对元分析质量影响较大。为规范元分析流程、提升报告质量,生物医学(如由医疗卫生领域专家国际性小组制定的PRISMA)及心理学(如美国心理学会推荐的MARS)领域中均制定了元分析报告的参考规范。然而,这些规范开放程度不充分且是否适合国内研究现状仍然未知。本文结合心理学研究的特点以及开放科学的趋势,经过专家团队的讨论,建议研究者在元分析的过程中以及在元分析报告的撰写中,参考更具有开放性与透明性的元分析报告规范。本文所提出的报告规范核心部分为方法与结果环节,共21个条目(仅检验清单内容,见https://osf.io/hpc3r/)。针对近期国内心理学元分析的报告现状,本文对该规范的核心部分进行进一步解释与说明,包括方案预注册、研究方法与结果部分内容的陈述、数据来源与分析过程的开放性等。了解元分析报告的规范,将有利于研究者进行元分析,同时方便审稿人、读者和期刊了解元分析研究的质量。

submitted time 2019-06-05 Hits15880Downloads1455 Comment 0

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