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1. chinaXiv:201605.00513 [pdf]

Can miscanthus C4 photosynthesis compete with festulolium C3 photosynthesis in a temperate climate?

Xiurong Jiao; Kirsten Kørup; Mathias Neumann Andersen; Erik J. Sacks; Xin-Guang Zhu; Poul Erik Lærke; Uffe Jørgensen
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

Miscanthus, a perennial grass with C4 photosynthesis, is regarded as a promising energy crop due to its high biomass productivity. Compared with other C4 species, most miscanthus genotypes have high cold tolerances at 14 °C. However, in temperate climates, temperatures below 14 °C are common and our aim was to elucidate cold tolerances of different miscanthus genotypes and compare with a C3 perennial grass – festulolium. Eleven genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius, M. × giganteus as well as festulolium were grown under warm (24/20 °C, day/night) and three under cold (14/10 °C, 10/8 °C and 6/4 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Measurements of photosynthetic light response curves, operating quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), net photosynthetic rate at a PAR of 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 (A1000) and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) were made at each temperature. In addition, temperature response curves were measured after the plants had been grown at 6/4 °C. The results showed that two tetraploid M. sacchariflorus and the standard triploid M. × giganteus cv. Hornum retained a significantly higher photosynthetic capacity than other miscanthus genotypes at each temperature level and still maintained photosynthesis after growing for a longer period at 6/4 °C. Only two of five measured miscanthus genotypes increased photosynthesis immediately after the temperature was raised again. The photosynthetic capacity of festulolium was significantly higher at 10/8 °C and 6/4 °C than of miscanthus genotypes. This indicates that festulolium may be more productive than the currently investigated miscanthus genotypes in cool, maritime climates. Within miscanthus, only one M. sacchariflorus genotype exhibited the same photosynthetic capacity as Hornum at both cold conditions and when the temperature was raised again. Therefore, this genotype could be useful for breeding new varieties with an improved cold tolerance vis-a-vis Hornum, and be valuable in broadening the genetic diversity of miscanthus for more widespread cultivation in temperate climates.

submitted time 2016-05-04 Hits193Downloads121 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.00507 [pdf]

Genotype × environment interaction analysis of North American shrub willow yield trials confirms superior performance of triploid hybrids

Eric S. Fabio; Timothy A. Volk; Raymond O. Miller; Michelle J. Serapiglia; Hugh G. Gauch; Ken C. J. Van Rees; Ryan D. Hangs; Beyhan Y. Amichev; Yulia A. Kuzovkina; Michel Labrecque; Gregg A. Johnson; Robert G. Ewy; Gary J. Kling; Lawrence B. Smart
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

Development of dedicated bioenergy crop production systems will require accurate yield estimates, which will be important for determining many of the associated environmental and economic impacts of their production. Shrub willow (Salix spp) is being promoted in areas of the USA and Canada due to its adaption to cool climates and wide genetic diversity available for breeding improvement. Willow breeding in North America is in an early stage, and selection of elite genotypes for commercialization will require testing across broad geographic regions to gain an understanding of how shrub willow interacts with the environment. We analyzed a dataset of first-rotation shrub willow yields of 16 genotypes across 10 trial environments in the USA and Canada for genotype-by-environment interactions using the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) model. Mean genotype yields ranged from 5.22 to 8.58 oven-dry Mg ha−1 yr−1. Analysis of the main effect of genotype showed that one round of breeding improved yields by as much as 20% over check cultivars and that triploid hybrids, most notably Salix viminalis × S. miyabeana, exhibited superior yields. We also found important variability in genotypic response to environments, which suggests specific adaptability could be exploited among 16 genotypes for yield gains. Strong positive correlations were found between environment main effects and AMMI parameters and growing environment temperatures. These findings demonstrate yield improvements are possible in one generation and will be important for developing cultivar recommendations and for future breeding efforts.

submitted time 2016-05-04 Hits148Downloads78 Comment 0

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