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1. chinaXiv:201904.00091 [pdf]

Monitoring the Dynamics of Field-Saturated Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in a Wastewater Irrigated Cropland [V5].pdf

Siyi Zhang; Isaac Hopkins; Li Guo; Henry Lin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The maintenance of adequate hydraulic conductivity is a basic priority for the function and sustainability of long-term wastewater irrigated lands. An effective procedure to measure in situ hydraulic conductivity quickly, easily, and reliably is still elusive. This study aims to compare the performance of DualHead Infiltrometers, a novel instrument designed to measure field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) quickly and in an automated fashion, with different parameters and old infiltrometer designs; and to investigate the dynamics of Kfs in a cropland that has been spray-irrigated with treated wastewater for fifty years. Our results showed that a modified procedure with a longer, single pressure cycle yielded results with lower coefficients of variation (CVs) for both pressures and infiltration rates, and performed better than the original procedure with two short pressure recycles. Kfs values measured by DualHead Infiltrometers were similar to those measured by double-ring infiltrometers in most conditions. Viscosity-corrected Kfs on irrigated croplands was 123.8±94.0 mm h-1, insignificantly higher than that on the non-irrigated croplands, 103.2±94.6 mm h-1. We observed seasonal variations in Kfs values between winter and summer conditions, but infiltration rates during all seasons remained much higher than the spray irrigation rate (4.25 mm h-1). Nevertheless, with CVs greater than 67%, caution must be exercised to ensure that hydraulic conductivity remains high enough to prevent runoff at all times, especially during winter frozen conditions.

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits6234Downloads429 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201904.00084 [pdf]

A simulation study of GNSS-R polarimetric scattering from the bare soil surface based on the AIEM model

吴学睿
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geochemistry

In the past two decades, Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a new remote sensing technique for soil moisture monitoring. Some experiments showed that the antenna of V polarization is more favorable to receive the reflected signals, and the interference pattern technique (IPT) was used for soil moisture and other geophysical parameters retrieval. Meanwhile, the lower satellite elevation angles are most impacted by the multipath. However, electromagnetic theoretical properties are not clear for GNSS-R soil moisture retrieval. In this paper, the Advanced Integral Equation Model (AIEM) is employed using the wave synthesis technique to simulate different polarimetric scattering at the specular directions. Results show when the incidence angles are larger than 70º, scattering at RR polarization (The transmitted signal is Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP), while the received one is also RHCP) is larger than that one at LR polarization (The transmitted signal is RHCP, while the received one is Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP)), while scattering at LR polarization is larger than that at RR polarization for the other incident angles(1º~70º). There is an apparent dip for VV and VR scattering due to the Brewster angle, which will result in the notch in the final receiving power and this phenomenon can be used for soil moisture retrieval or vegetation corrections. The volumetric soil moisture (vms) effects on their scattering are also presented. The larger soil moisture will result in lower scattering at RR polarization, and this is very different from the scattering of the other polarizations. It is interesting to note that the surface correlation function only affects the amplitudes of the scattering coefficients at much less level, but it has no effects on the angular trends of RR and LR polarizations.

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits3154Downloads189 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201904.00085 [pdf]

全极化GNSS-R陆面参数延迟多普勒图模型

吴学睿; 金双根
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geodestics

目前,针对GNSS-R的研究多从观测角度出发,对其散射机理研究相对较少。本文针对GNSS-R(GNSS-Reflectometry)反射信号陆面参数的延迟多普勒图理论模型展开研究,对于陆面参数(裸土、植被)的双站散射特性的计算采用修改后的随机粗糙面散射模型和零阶/一阶辐射传输方程模型。通过该模型模拟分析了裸土、植被参数变化时,相应的延迟多普勒图的变化。同时为利用极化信息进行相应地物参数的后向反演,模型中增加全极化计算功能。全极化GNSS+R陆面参数延迟多普勒图理论模型的研究有助于星载数据的解释、地表实验设计、数据仿真和后向反演算法的开发。

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits5501Downloads749 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201904.00086 [pdf]

GNSS-R/IR 土壤水分遥感研究现状

吴学睿; 金双根; 王峰
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geodestics

GNSS-R/IR是利用导航卫星反射信号对地观测的新方式,是国内外研究的热点技术。由于GNSS卫星群主要工作在穿透性比较强的L波段,因此适宜进行地表土壤水分监测。本文根据不同的遥感平台,详细叙述了地基、塔基、机载和星载GNSS-R技术土壤水分监测的发展现状,同时综述了辐射计联合GNSS-R技术进行土壤水分监测的发展状态以及GNSS-R地基和星载接收机的发展现状并探讨了GNSS-R/IR进行土壤水分反演的中的重点和难点内容。

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits2752Downloads168 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201904.00074 [pdf]

地表冻融状态对延迟多普勒波形和多路径数据影响理论分析

吴学睿
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geodestics

GNSS-R/IR(GNSS-Reflectometry/Interferometric Reflectometry)遥感是利用导航卫星反射信号或直射信号与反射信号的相干信号对地观测的新兴遥感方式,在国内外引起广泛关注。为将GNSS-R/IR技术的应用领域拓展到地表冻融状态的监测上,本文利用冻融土混合介质介电常数模型计算土壤介电常数,采用双站全极化相干反射率模型和随机粗糙面散射模型, 分别计算了经冻融土反射的GPS相干反射量的镜像反射率,以及GPS非相干反射分量的漫散射特性;并模拟分析了冻融转换时,GPS多路径信息(GNSS-IR)以及包含漫散射信号的延迟多普勒图(GNSS-R)的变化特征。理论研究表明冻融转换过程中,地表介电常数的变化导致GPS多路径信息和延迟多普勒图的明显变化。本文从散射机理上揭示了利用GNSS-R和GNSS-IR遥感进行地表冻融特性监测的理论依据。

submitted time 2019-04-04 Hits3051Downloads186 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201904.00072 [pdf]

Impact of Urban Rail Transit on Business Districts Based on Time Distance: Urumqi Light Rail.pdf

常烃
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

基于超制图学的思想,建立模型将乘坐轻轨的时间距离换算成以米(m)为单位的空间距离。在此基础上,通过地理信息系统(GIS)的地图投影空间变换方法,用换算出的距离重新定义两地间距离,变形原地图形成时间距离地图。将时间距离空间化,利用技术手段,对时间距离进行可视化表达。结果发现,轻轨对于城市形态的影响受到站点离所选取的中心点距离的影响,呈现离中心点越远变形越大;离中心点越近变形越小。轻轨对商业中心布局的影响基本呈现圈层分布。时间距离压缩了传统城市形态。随着乌鲁木齐地铁建设进程的推进和基础设施的完善,城市内部进一步压缩时间距离仍有很大余地,已有商业中心应进行升级。本研究为乌鲁木齐城市建设提供一种新的参考与思路。

submitted time 2019-03-31 Hits3289Downloads206 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201903.00237 [pdf]

Spatial distribution of water-active soil layer along the south-north transect in the Loess Plateau of China

ZHAO Chunlei; SHAO Ming'an
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil water is an important composition of water recycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. However, intense water exchange between soil-plant and soil-atmosphere interfaces only occurs in a certain layer of the soil profile. For deep insight into water active layer (WAL, defined as the soil layer with a coefficient of variation in soil water content >10% in a given time domain) in the Loess Plateau of China, we measured soil water content (SWC) in the 0.0–5.0 m soil profile from 86 sampling sites along an approximately 860-km long south-north transect during the period 2013–2016. Moreover, a dataset contained four climatic factors (mean annual precipitation, mean annual evaporation, annual mean temperature and mean annual dryness index) and five local factors (altitude, slope gradient, land use, clay content and soil organic carbon) of each sampling site was obtained. In this study, three WAL indices (WAL-T (the thickness of WAL), WAL-CV (the mean coefficient of variation in SWC within WAL) and WAL-SWC (the mean SWC within WAL)) were used to evaluate the characteristics of WAL. The results showed that with increasing latitude, WAL-T and WAL-CV increased firstly and then decreased. WAL-SWC showed an opposite distribution pattern along the south-north transect compared with WAL-T and WAL-CV. Average WAL-T of the transect was 2.0 m, suggesting intense soil water exchange in the 0.0–2.0 m soil layer in the study area. Soil water exchange was deeper and more intense in the middle region than in the southern and northern regions, with the values of WAL-CV and WAL-T being 27.3% and 4.3 m in the middle region, respectively. Both climatic (10.1%) and local (4.9%) factors influenced the indices of WAL, with climatic factors having a more dominant effect. Compared with multiple linear regressions, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) from artificial neural network can better estimate the WAL indices. PTFs developed by artificial neural network respectively explained 86%, 81% and 64% of the total variations in WAL-T, WAL-SWC and WAL-CV. Knowledge of WAL is crucial for understanding the regional water budget and evaluating the stable soil water reserve, regional water characteristics and eco-hydrological processes in the Loess Plateau of China.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5348Downloads661 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201903.00238 [pdf]

Fluvial sediments in the Alagxa Plateau as a dust source: iron mineralogical and geochemical evidence

WANG Youjun; JIA Jia
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geochemistry

The Alagxa Plateau, in the margin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most important dust source areas in East Asia, and the widespread sandy desert in the area is important both as a reservoir and a source of eolian silty. The northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is one of the most actively-growing mountain belt on earth, and has large amounts of debris, with masses of fine grained material, which were continuously mobilized and deposited in the Alagxa Plateau by rivers, forming broad alluvial fans. It is possible that the role of fluvial sediments as a source of silty dust in the Alagxa Plateau has been underestimated. In this study, we test this hypothesis by investigating the iron mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the fluvial sediments and the surface material of the sandy desert in the Alagxa Plateau, and comparing them with paleo-eolian dust deposits (loess) in the adjacent Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) to investigate the possible linkages among the fluvial sediments, sandy desert and the last glacial loess of the CLP. The results show that sandy desert typically have high contents of goethite, and high ratios of goethite to hematite, similar to the fluvial sediments in the Alagxa Plateau. Based on the major element characteristics, field investigations and the results of previous studies, we found a genetic link between the silt component of the fluvial sediments and the sandy desert in the Alagxa Plateau with high value of Gt (goethite) and similarity of the Gt/(Hm (hematite)+Gt) ratio. But the silt component of the sandy desert main come from the adjacent fluvial sediments. The iron mineralogical characteristics (magnetic susceptibility, ARM (anhysteretic susceptibility), SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) and SIRMAF100mT (SIRM demagnetized at 100 mT)) of the CLP samples overlap with those of the fluvial sediments in the Alagxa Plateau, but there is a mismatch with the sandy desert samples. This suggests that the fluvial sediments are the source of a large amount of silty material which could be transported to the CLP. Therefore, we conclude that the fluvial sediment in the Alagxa Plateau is an important source of eolian silt, which is deposited in downwind region, and that this source has been previously underestimated.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2080Downloads191 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201903.00239 [pdf]

An experimental study on the influences of water erosion on wind erosion in arid and semi-arid regions

YANG Huimin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Complex erosion by wind and water causes serious harm in arid and semi-arid regions. The interaction mechanisms between water erosion and wind erosion is the key to further our understanding of the complex erosion. Therefore, in-depth understandings of the influences of water erosion on wind erosion is needed. This research used a wind tunnel and two rainfall simulators to investigate the influences of water erosion on succeeding wind erosion. The wind erosion measurements before and after water erosion were run on semi-fixed aeolian sandy soil configured with three slopes (5°, 10° and 15°), six wind speeds (0, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 20 m/s), and five rainfall intensities (0, 30, 45, 60 and 75 mm/h). Results showed that water erosion generally restrained the succeeding wind erosion. At a same slope, the restraining effects decreased as rainfall intensity increased, which decreased from 70.63% to 50.20% with rainfall intensity increased from 30 to 75 mm/h. Rills shaped by water erosion could weaken the restraining effects at wind speed exceeding 15 m/s mainly by cutting through the fine grain layer, exposing the sand layer prone to wind erosion to airflow. In addition, the restraining effects varied greatly among different soil types. The restraining effects of rainfall on the succeeding wind erosion depend on the formation of a coarsening layer with a crust and a compact fine grain layer after rainfall. The findings can deepen the understanding of the complex erosion and provide scientific basis for regional soil and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5467Downloads502 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201903.00240 [pdf]

Abrupt temperature change and a warming hiatus from 1951 to 2014 in Inner Mongolia, China

MA Long; LI Hongyu; LIU Tingxi
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

An abrupt temperature change and a warming hiatus have strongly influenced the global climate. This study focused on these changes in Inner Mongolia, China. This study used the central clustering method, Mann-Kendall mutation test and other methods to explore the abrupt temperature change and warming hiatus in three different temperature zones of the study region based on average annual data series. Among the temperature metrics investigated, average minimum temperature (Tnav) shifted the earliest, followed by average temperature (Tnv) and average maximum temperature (Txav). The latest change was observed in summer (1990s), whereas the earliest was observed in winter (1970s). Before and after the abrupt temperature change, Tnav fluctuated considerably, whereas there was only a slight change in Txav. Before and after the abrupt temperature change, the winter temperature changed more dramatically than the summer temperature. Before the abrupt temperature change, Tnav in the central region (0.322°C/10a) and west region (0.48°C/10a) contributed the most to the increasing temperatures. After the abrupt temperature change, Tnav in winter in the central region (0.519°C/10a) and in autumn in the west region (0.729°C/10a) contributed the most to the temperature increases. Overall, in the years in which temperature shifts occurred early, a warming hiatus also appeared early. The three temperature metrics in spring (1991) in the east region were the first to exhibit a warming hiatus. In the east region, Txav displayed the lowest rate of increase (0.412°C/a) in the period after the abrupt temperature change and before the warming hiatus, and the highest rate of increase after the warming hiatus.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5549Downloads493 Comment 0

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