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1. chinaXiv:201605.01392 [pdf]

Proteomic Comparison and MRM-Based Comparative Analysis of Metabolites Reveal Metabolic Shift in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Shu, Qingbo; Cai, Tanxi; Chen, Xiulan; Xue, Peng; Zhu, Nali; Xie, Zhensheng; Wei, Shasha; Niu, Lili; Yang, Fuquan; Shu, Qingbo; Cai, Tanxi; Chen, Xiulan; Xue, Peng; Zhu, Nali; Xie, Zhensheng; Wei, Shasha; Niu, Lili; Yang, Fuquan; Shu, Qingbo; Zhang, Qing
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

One of the major challenges in prostate cancer therapy remains the development of effective treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), as the underlying mechanisms for its progression remain elusive. Previous studies showed that androgen receptor (AR) is crucially involved in regulation of metabolism in prostate cancer (PCa) cells throughout the transition from early stage, androgen-sensitive PCa to androgen-independent CRPC. AR achieves such metabolic rewiring directively either via its transcriptional activity or via interactions with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, due to the heterogeneous expression and activity status of AR in PCa cells, it remains a challenge to investigate the links between AR status and metabolic alterations. To this end, we compared the proteomes of three pairs of androgen-sensitive (AS) and androgen-independent (AI) PCa cell lines, namely, PC3-AR(+)/PC3, 22Rv1/Du145, and LNCaP/C42B, using an iTRAQ labeling approach. Our results revealed that most of the differentially expressed proteins between each pair function in metabolism, indicating a metabolic shift between AS and AT cells, as further validated by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification of nucleotides and relative comparison of fatty acids between these cell lines. Furthermore, increased adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1) in AS relative to AT cells may result in activation of AMPK, representing a major regulatory factor involved in the observed metabolic shift in PCa cells.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits472Downloads283 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01335 [pdf]

Dynamics of the Lipid Droplet Proteome of the Oleaginous Yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides

Zhu, Zhiwei; Gong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Sufang; Lin, Xinping; Shen, Hongwei; Zou, Hanfa; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Ding, Yunfeng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Congyan; Xie, Zhensheng; Yang, Fuquan; Zhao, Xudong; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Sufang; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K.
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that serve as a neutral lipid reservoir and a hub for lipid metabolism. Manipulating LD formation, evolution, and mobilization in oleaginous species may lead to the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals. However, key factors regulating LD dynamics remain poorly characterized. Here we purified the LDs and identified LD-associated proteins from cells of the lipid-producing yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides cultured under nutrient-rich, nitrogen-limited, and phosphorus-limited conditions. The LD proteome consisted of 226 proteins, many of which are involved in lipid metabolism and LD formation and evolution. Further analysis of our previous comparative transcriptome and proteome data sets indicated that the transcription level of 85 genes and protein abundance of 77 proteins changed under nutrient-limited conditions. Such changes were highly relevant to lipid accumulation and partially confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. We demonstrated that the major LD structure protein Ldp1 is an LD marker protein being upregulated in lipid-rich cells. When overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ldp1 localized on the LD surface and facilitated giant LD formation, suggesting that Ldp1 plays an important role in controlling LD dynamics. Our results significantly advance the understanding of the molecular basis of lipid overproduction and storage in oleaginous yeasts and will be valuable for the development of superior lipid producers.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits380Downloads215 Comment 0

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