Current Location:home > Browse
Your conditions: 2019-05-05(4)

1. chinaXiv:201905.00003 [pdf]

急性应激损害对威胁刺激的注意解除

罗禹; 念靖晴; 鲍未; 张静静; 赵守盈; 潘运; 许爽; 张禹
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

急性应激会增强个体对威胁刺激的注意偏向,但急性应激是增强了对威胁刺激的注意定向还是损害了对威胁刺激的注意解除还不清楚。本研究采用社会评估冷压任务和点探测任务,结合事件相关电位技术,考察急性应激对威胁刺激注意偏向影响的认知机制。在进行社会评估冷压任务后,应激组个体的状态焦虑和皮质醇浓度显著升高。在注意偏向中,应激组注意解除比控制组更慢,在注意定向上应激组和控制组无显著差异。ERP结果上,应激组比控制组诱发了更负的SPCN成分,在N2pc成分上没有显著差异。这些结果说明,急性应激增强对威胁刺激的注意偏向是因为其损害个体对威胁刺激的注意解除,这可能是因为急性应激损害了与注意解除相关的额-顶网络的功能所致。

submitted time 2019-05-05 Hits542Downloads92 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201904.00087 [pdf]

德性与德行:道德决策中的提问框架效应

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

道德双加工理论预测关注德行的提问框架(道德行为)下相比关注德性的提问框架(道德判断)下,决策者具有更高的情绪卷入而会做出更偏向于义务论的决策或者对规范的敏感性更高;而认知失调的行动模型则认为在具有心理冲突性的情境下,决策者在道德行动框架相比于道德判断框架下为了实现失调减少会做出更偏离义务论的决策或者对规范的敏感性更低。本研究通过3个实验(总N = 960)探讨了这一道德决策中的提问框架效应。实验1使用经典道德两难情境法,使被试在道德判断框架和道德行动框架下对道德提议进行赞成度评分;实验2操纵规范和结果的组合,即规范提倡或禁止且结果利大于弊或弊大于利,并使用方差分析法探讨规范与结果对道德决策的交互影响;实验3使用CNI模型(Consequence, Norm and general Inaction/action preference)分离出结果敏感性,规范敏感性和一般性不作为/作为倾向。3个实验综合表明道德行动框架比道德判断框架增强了结果敏感性,削弱了规范敏感性,增强了一般性不作为倾向。道德行动框架比道德判断框架会导致更强的功利主义倾向,更弱的义务论倾向和更强的一般性不作为倾向,验证了Gawronski等(2017)的实验结果,支持认知失调的行动模型,说明道德决策会受到动机加工的影响。

submitted time 2019-05-05 Hits2685Downloads604 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201905.00052 [pdf]

机器人自动设计初探讨:基于黑盒函数优化实现

Zhiyang Xiang
Subjects: Computer Science >> Computer Application Technology

机器人具有极大降低劳动体力需求的潜力,是目前研究热点之一。机器人设计是智力劳动密集型工业,因此机器人的自动设计方法研究具有重要的现实意义。由于现有研究中鲜有自动设计的研究,本文探讨自动设计的基本框架。将机器人设计抽象为黑盒参数优化的过程,通过物理模拟对一个特定的机器人设计进行评分,确定此次设计完成给定任务的能力。通过更改设计参数,进行完成任务能力的优化。即自动设计方法的输入是一组零件,一个需要机器人完成的任务以及一个一般是基于强化学习的机器人控制训练方法,输出是这一组零件的组合方式。由于物理模拟,或真实的实验验证在时间和劳动成本上较为昂贵,因此黑盒优化的过程须尽可能降低采样次数。本文采用贝叶斯参数优化完成设计任务。实验表明,所提出的方法可以在5次左右的模拟中完成一个两关节机器人自动设计任务。

submitted time 2019-05-05 Hits197Downloads8 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201905.00002 [pdf]

Females Meditate and Males Play Games: Gender Differences in the Benefits of Meditation Training

Wang, Yuzheng; Chen, Yahong; Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Ning; Sun, Yabin; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jinyan; Luo, Fei
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Although extensive research has shown the benefits of meditation on attention, evidence for the benefits of short-term meditation training remains scarce. In addition, prior studies on these benefits have included considerably more females than males, potentially concealing gender differences in attention training effects. Here we present a longitudinal study including equal-sample male and female participants to explore potential gender differences in short-term meditation training effects on an attentional blink (AB) task. One hundred and sixty-five college students were randomly divided into three groups: meditation training, video game training and control (no training). Participants were asked to complete the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and to rate their level of emotional state and time spent on video game playing per day. Participants then completed a 4-day, 20-min training including meditation training, video game training, or a waiting period (control). After training, participants rated their arousal state and emotional state, and performed the AB task. Results showed that participants who completed either short-term meditation training or video game training showed significant improvement on AB performance. Interestingly, meditation training was more effective in females, while video game training was more effective in males. Meditation training, but not video game training, decreased anxiety scores. The current results indicate that gender plays an important role in the benefits of attention training. It is essential that clinicians take gender into consideration when implementing meditation based therapy.

submitted time 2019-05-05 Hits457Downloads71 Comment 0

  [1 Pages/ 4 Totals]