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1. chinaXiv:201904.00073 [pdf]

阻止文化驱动的入侵生物扩散

李雄; Supriyo Basak; 周睿; 张卫哲; 付瑶; 周新茂; 施超; 郗厚诚; 杨永平
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

地区文化(如宗教、饮食或旅游文化)有时会驱动入侵生物的扩散,我们必须采取措施来阻止入侵生物融入大众文化。

submitted time 2019-03-30 Hits82Downloads44 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201903.00232 [pdf]

Conversion of cropland into agroforestry land versus naturally-restored grassland alters soil macro-faunal diversity and trophic structure in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China

LIU Rentao
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Restoration of cropland (termed 'Farm') after abandonment including shrubs (termed 'Shrub'), trees (termed 'Tree') and natural grassland (termed 'Grass') has become a routine process aimed to improve land productivity and control desertification. During this restoration process, soil macro-faunal diversity, and trophic structure were investigated at four types of sites (Farm, Shrub, Tree, and Grass) during growing season in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China. Results indicated that the Staphylinidae family was found to dominate at the Grass, Shrub, and Tree sites, whiles larval Pyralidae individuals were found at the Grass site only. The density of the omnivores (i.e., Formicidae family) was significantly (P<0.05) greater at the Grass site than at the Tree and Farm sites. The total density and richness of predator and phytophages were found to be markedly (P<0.05) greater at the Grass site than at the Farm site. Meanwhile, we found the taxon richness of predators was significantly (P<0.05) higher at the Shrub site than at the Farm and Tree sites. Compared with the Farm and afforested Shrub/Tree sites, the Grass site had greater density, taxon richness, and Shannon index (P<0.05). In conclusion, natural restoration of abandoned croplands toward grassland was an effective strategy relative to artificial afforestation for improvement of soil biological diversity. Moreover, planting shrub is a preferable measure in abandoned croplands for land development in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits216Downloads87 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201901.00107 [pdf]

Spatial variability of soil water content and related factors across the Hexi Corridor of China

LI Xiangdong; SHAO Ming'an
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Soil water content (SWC) is a key factor limiting ecosystem sustainability in arid and semi-arid areas of the Hexi Corridor of China, which is characterized by an ecological environment that is vulnerable to climate change. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the large-scale spatial distribution of SWC in this region. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution patterns of SWC across the Hexi Corridor and identify the factors responsible for spatial variation of SWC at a regional scale. This study collected and analyzed SWC in the 0–100 cm soil profile from 109 field sampling sites (farmland, grassland and forestland) across the Hexi Corridor in 2017. We selected 17 factors, including land use, topography (latitude, longitude, elevation, slope gradient, and slope aspect), soil properties (soil clay content, soil silt content, soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, field capacity, and soil organic carbon content), climate factors (mean annual precipitation, potential evaporation, and aridity index), plant characteristic (vegetation coverage) and planting pattern (irrigation or rain-fed), as possible environmental variables to analyze their effects on SWC. The results showed that SWC was 0.083 (±0.067) g/g in the 0–100 cm soil profile and decreased in the order of farmland, grassland and forestland. The SWC in the upper soil layers (0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm) had obvious difference when the mean annual precipitation differed by 200 mm. The SWC decreased from southeast to northwest following the same pattern as precipitation, and had a moderate to strong spatial dependence in a large effective range (75–378 km). The SWC showed a similar distribution and had no significant difference between soil layers in the 0–100 cm soil profile. The principal component analysis showed that the mean annual precipitation, geographical position (longitude and latitude) and soil properties (soil bulk density and soil clay content) were the main factors dominating the variance of environmental variables. A stepwise linear regression equation showed that plant characteristic (vegetation coverage) and soil properties (soil organic carbon content, field capacity and soil clay content) were the optimal factors to predict the variation of SWC. Soil clay content could be better to explain the SWC variation in the deeper soil layers compared with the other factors.

submitted time 2019-01-17 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits632Downloads136 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201901.00108 [pdf]

Derivation of salt content in salinized soil from hyperspectral reflectance data: A case study at Minqin Oasis, Northwest China

QIAN Tana; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Soil salinization is a serious ecological and environmental problem because it adversely affects sustainable development worldwide, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. It is crucial and urgent that advanced technologies are used to efficiently and accurately assess the status of salinization processes. Case studies to determine the relations between particular types of salinization and their spectral reflectances are essential because of the distinctive characteristics of the reflectance spectra of particular salts. During April 2015 we collected surface soil samples (0–10 cm depth) at 64 field sites in the downstream area of Minqin Oasis in Northwest China, an area that is undergoing serious salinization. We developed a linear model for determination of salt content in soil from hyperspectral data as follows. First, we undertook chemical analysis of the soil samples to determine their soluble salt contents. We then measured the reflectance spectra of the soil samples, which we post-processed using a continuum-removed reflectance algorithm to enhance the absorption features and better discriminate subtle differences in spectral features. We applied a normalized difference salinity index to the continuum-removed hyperspectral data to obtain all possible waveband pairs. Correlation of the indices obtained for all of the waveband pairs with the wavebands corresponding to measured soil salinities showed that two wavebands centred at wavelengths of 1358 and 2382 nm had the highest sensitivity to salinity. We then applied the linear regression modelling to the data from half of the soil samples to develop a soil salinity index for the relationships between wavebands and laboratory measured soluble salt content. We used the hyperspectral data from the remaining samples to validate the model. The salt content in soil from Minqin Oasis were well produced by the model. Our results indicate that wavelengths at 1358 and 2382 nm are the optimal wavebands for monitoring the concentrations of chlorine and sulphate compounds, the predominant salts at Minqin Oasis. Our modelling provides a reference for future case studies on the use of hyperspectral data for predictive quantitative estimation of salt content in soils in arid regions. Further research is warranted on the application of this method to remotely sensed hyperspectral data to investigate its potential use for large-scale mapping of the extent and severity of soil salinity.

submitted time 2019-01-17 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits666Downloads165 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201901.00110 [pdf]

Eco-physiological studies on desert plants: germination of Halothamnus iraqensis Botsch. seeds under different conditions

Arvind BHATT; Narayana R BHAT; Valentina MURRU
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

With the aim to investigate if the halophyte Halothamnus iraqensis Botsch. can be suitable for re-vegetation and remediation of salt-affected lands, this study evaluated (1) the effects of photoperiod, thermoperiod, storage period and wings' presence on its seed germination, and (2) the ability of its seeds to have successful germination recovery after salt stress. Germination tests in different photoperiods (12 h light/12 h darkness and total darkness) and thermoperiods (15°C/20°C and 20°C/25°C) were conducted for seeds collected in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The seeds collected in 2016 were sown under different salinity levels (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mM NaCl) to assess the salinity tolerance during the germination. Wings' presence highly inhibited seed germination of this species in both photoperiods and thermoperiods under all salinity level treatments. In addition, the germination recovery occurred well when seeds were deprived of their wings. The photoperiod of 12 h light/12 h darkness and the thermoperiod of 15°C/20°C were the best conditions for seed germination. Germination percentages of H. iraqensis seeds decreased with the increasing storage duration, especially after three years of the collection. In addition, H. iraqensis seeds were able to germinate under different salinity levels, and their germination percentages decreased with increasing salinity levels. H. iraqensis seeds have the ability to recover their germination after alleviating the salt stress, irrespective of photoperiod, highlighting the halophilous character of this species.

submitted time 2019-01-17 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits798Downloads142 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201901.00111 [pdf]

Variation and heritability of morphological and physiological traits among Leymus chinensis genotypes under different environmental conditions

YANG Xue; LI Junpeng; ZHAO Tingting
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Intraspecific trait variation and heritability in different environmental conditions not only suggest a potential for an evolutionary response but also have important ecological consequences at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. However, the contribution of quantitative trait variation within a grassland species to evolutionary responses or ecological consequences is seldom documented. Leymus chinensis is an important dominant species in semi-arid grasslands of China, which has seriously suffered from drought and high temperature stresses in recent decades. In the present study, we measured variation and heritability of 10 quantitative traits, namely the number of tillers, maximum shoot height, number of rhizomes, maximum rhizome length, rhizome mass, aboveground mass, root mass, maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf length to leaf width ratio (LL/LW), for 10 genotypes of L. chinensis under one non-stress (Ck) condition and three environmental stress conditions (i.e., drought (Dr), high temperature (Ht), and both drought and high temperature (DrHt)). Result indicated that (1) the interaction of genotype and environmental condition (G×E) was significant for 6 traits but not significant for the other 4 traits as shown by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), suggesting that different selection forces were placed for different traits on the factors dominating phenotypic responses to different environmental conditions. Moreover, these significant G×E effects on traits indicated significantly different phenotypic adaptive responses among L. chinensis genotypes to different environmental conditions. Additionally, individuals could be grouped according to environmental condition rather than genotype as shown by canonical discriminant analysis, indicating that environmental condition played a more important role in affecting phenotypic variation than genotype; (2) by one-way ANOVA, significant differences among L. chinensis genotypes were found in all 10 traits under Ck and Dr conditions, in 8 traits under DrHt condition and only in 4 traits under Ht condition; and (3) all 10 traits showed relatively low or non-measurable broad-sense heritability (H2) under stress conditions. However, the lowest H2 value for most traits did not occur under DrHt condition, which supported the hypothesis of 'unfavorable conditions have unpredictable effects' rather than 'unfavorable conditions decrease heritability'. Results from our experiment might aid to improve predictions on the potential impacts of climate changes on L. chinensis and eventually species conservation and ecosystem restoration.

submitted time 2019-01-17 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1543Downloads788 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201810.00168 [pdf]

半干旱区沙地沙蒿生物量及根系分布特征研究

赵明; 王文科; 王周锋; 陈立
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

沙蒿是中国西北半干旱地区主要的固沙植物,其根系分布影响包气带水分运移过程,准确的植被特征和根系密度分布对根系吸水模型的建立十分重要。本研究采用整体挖掘法获取不同层位的根系和根际土壤含水量,引入冠级和龄级的概念对沙蒿根系分布特征进行研究。分析结果表明:沙蒿种群以低龄级沙蒿占优,其根系生物量随龄级呈‘S’型增长;根系长度分布和均一化根系密度分布均符合对数正太分布,最大值出现在浅层土壤20 cm处;沙蒿生长不依赖于地下水,其根系主要利用包气带中的水分,持续干旱条件下,为满足蒸腾作用根系出现两种调节方式:1、横向生长增加根系量,利用横向土壤剖面的水分;2、浅层根区由于水分胁迫造成的吸水量减少由深部相对湿润的根区补偿。因此沙蒿根系吸水模型中的根系密度分布函数应为对数正态分布,且吸水过程不仅依赖于根系密度分布,同时受土壤水分的影响。

submitted time 2018-10-23 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits426Downloads244 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201807.00032 [pdf]

Characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under various grassland types along a transect in a mountain-basin system in Xinjiang, China

BI Xu; LI Bo; NAN Bo; FAN Yao; FU Qi; ZHANG Xinshi
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) in arid regions are important components of global C and the N cycles, and their response to climate change will have important implications for both ecosystem processes and global climate feedbacks. Grassland ecosystems of Funyun County in the southern foot of the Altay Mountains are characterized by complex topography, suggesting large variability in the spatial distribution of SOC and STN. However, there has been little investigation of SOC and STN on grasslands in arid regions with a mountain-basin structure. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of SOC and STN in different grassland types in a mountain-basin system at the southern foot of the Altai Mountains, north of the Junggar Basin in China, and explored their potential influencing factors and relationships with meteorological factors and soil properties. We found that the concentrations and storages of SOC and STN varied significantly with grassland type, and showed a decreasing trend along a decreasing elevation gradient in alpine meadow, mountain meadow, temperate typical steppe, temperate steppe desert, and temperate steppe desert. In addition, the SOC and STN concentrations decreased with depth, except in the temperate desert steppe. According to Pearson's correlation values and redundancy analysis, the mean annual precipitation, soil moisture content and soil available N concentration were significantly positively correlated with the SOC and STN concentrations. In contrast, the mean annual temperature, pH, and soil bulk density were significantly and negatively correlated with the SOC and STN concentrations. The mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature were the primary factors related to the SOC and STN concentrations. The distributions of the SOC and STN concentrations were highly regulated by the elevation-induced differences in meteorological factors. Mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature together explained 97.85% and 98.38% of the overall variations in the SOC and STN concentrations, respectively, at soil depth of 0–40 cm, with precipitation making the greatest contribution. Our results provide a basis for estimating and predicting SOC and STN concentrations in grasslands in arid regions with a mountain-basin structure.

submitted time 2018-07-05 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1450Downloads360 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201806.00049 [pdf]

自然科学与社会科学的交叉融合:国际科学联合会述评

康美美; 赵文武
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

具有全球影响力的国际科学理事会与国际社会科学理事会合并,并宣告成立统一的国际科学联合会,是国际科学发展史的里程碑事件,标志着自然科学与社会科学的综合研究已成为当代科学发展的潮流。国际科学联合会的战略定位是成为全球所有科学的代言人,为解决复杂全球问题的跨学科、跨地域研究服务。我国科研工作者应以此为契机,深化跨学科交流与跨学科人才培养,拓展全球变化与可持续发展等跨学科综合研究,为解决我国重大战略需求、提升我国科研国际影响力做出新的贡献。

submitted time 2018-06-09 From cooperative journals:《生态学报》 Hits4461Downloads372 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201806.00050 [pdf]

面向生态文明的生态系统服务——2017年第九届国际生态系统服务大会述评

孟莹; 刘俊国; 王佳; 冒甘泉; 王凯; 王子丰; 王萌
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

第九届国际生态系统服务大会(9th Ecosystem Services Partnership World Conference,ESP9)于2017年12月11日-12月15日在中国深圳召开。本次会议主题为"增强生态系统服务,促进生态文明建设",旨在探讨生态系统服务科学热点问题,交流最新研究成果,并寻求基于自然的绿色解决方案,进一步推动生态修复与环境保护政策及实践的有机结合,为加强生态修复与生态治理国际合作提供良好交流平台。本文旨在对本次会议的7场特邀报告,30个主题会场内容进行综述,内容围绕当前生态系统服务领域的前沿与热点领域展开,包括生态系统保护管理及可持续性、生物多样性、生态系统脆弱性、生态系统服务评估与模型、气候变化、土地利用与景观、政策与决策分析等方向。

submitted time 2018-06-09 From cooperative journals:《生态学报》 Hits5632Downloads439 Comment 0

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