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1. chinaXiv:201804.01249 [pdf]

Negligible effect of tooth reduction on body mass in Mesozoic birds

ZHOU Ya-Chun; ZHANG Fu-Cheng; Corwin SULLIVAN
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Tooth reduction and loss was an important evolutionary process in Mesozoic birds. Analysis of evolutionary trends in the total mass of the dentition, a function of tooth size and tooth number, has the potential to shed light on the evolutionary pattern of tooth reduction and loss, and on the causes of this pattern. Because modern birds lack teeth, however, they cannot provide the basis for a model that would allow estimation of tooth masses in their Mesozoic counterparts. We selected the teeth of crocodilians as analogues of those in Mesozoic birds because the former are the closest living relatives of the latter, and the two groups are similar in tooth morphology, tooth implantation, and tooth replacement pattern. To estimate tooth masses in Mesozoic birds, we formulated four regression equations relating tooth mass to various linear dimensions, which were measured in 31 intact isolated teeth from eight individual crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis). The results for Mesozoic birds show that dental mass as a proportion of body mass was negligible, at least from the perspective of flight performance, suggesting that selection pressure favoring body mass reduction was probably not the primary driver of tooth reduction or loss. Variations in dental mass among Mesozoic birds may reflect the different foods they ate, and the different types of feeding behavior they displayed.

提交时间: 2018-04-04 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量1251下载量338 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201711.02398 [pdf]

International UTC TAI comparison based on BDS PPP

Yulong Ge; Baoqi Sun; WeiJin Qin; Mingjun Ouyang; Xuhai Yang
分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学其他学科

The BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) developed by China, and provided official service for Asia-pacific region freely since 2012. With development of BDS, BDS-based time transfer has become an important research direction in BDS’s application fields. At present, the main method of BDS-based time transfer is BDS Common View (BDS CV), which can reach nanoseconds magnitude. Hence, we investigate the performance time transfer based on BDS precise point positioning (PPP) toward UTC/TAI compute. In this contribution, we focus on UTC/TAI comparison based on BDS PPP by using developed quad-constellation GNSS software, which called National Time System Center’s (NTSC) Bernese. And a long-term data analysis is presented. The experiments include two parts: (1) The reliability of the software and multi-GNSS products; (2) The performance of the BDS PPP toward International UTC/TAI comparison. The experimental results reveal that the accuracy of NTSC’s Bernese GPS PPP can reach about 0.1 ns relative to BIPM TAI PPP solutions. Compared with BIPM TAI PPP solutions, the accuracy of GPS PPP solutions can achieve about 0.2 ns by using multi-GNSS precise products, such as GBM, COM. For BDS PPP solutions, the solutions of GPS PPP are regarded as reference values. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of time transfer based on BDS PPP can reach better 1 ns toward UTC/TAI comparison for the statistics of 30 days-arc solutions, while 0.1 ns magnitude can be achieved for the statistics of daily solutions due to the influence of the day boundary discontinuity. Moreover, four different processing strategies of BDS PPP which include tropospheric delay fixed, tropospheric delay and coordinates fixed, coordinates fixed, and BDS-only are tested. Results show that the comparable accuracy can be achieved for four processing strategies. Hence, one can conclude that the time transfer based on BDS-only PPP show a good performance toward UTC/TAI computation.

提交时间: 2018-01-07 点击量3817下载量1433 评论 0

3. chinaXiv:201711.02563 [pdf]

Implications for Late Miocene diet from Diceros gansuensis: starch granules in tooth calculus

CHEN He; WANG Shi-Qi; TAO Da-Wei; XIA Xiu-Min; CHEN Shan-Qin; WU Yan
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Reconstructing the diet of extinct species is a fundamental goal in vertebrate paleobiology. Dental calculus is the calcium phosphate deposits on teeth, which captures a large number of food particles and contains the food information of ancient animal. It is possible to explore ancient animal dietary and investigate the environmental information from dental calculus. A large number of starch granules were found in dental calculus of Dicros gansuensis excavated from the earliest Late Miocene Guonigou fauna of the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province. It is the first time that starch granules from Late Miocene were found. We classified the ancient starch granules by its morphological characteristics and also analyzed the starch granules of leaves of modern plants around the living environment of D. gansuensis to find modern starch granules and compare them with ancient ones. The results indicate that D. gansuensis may eat not only shrubs leaves, such as the plant from Caprifoliaceae, but also some tree leaves from Juglandaceae (walnut), and maybe some herbs from Ranunculaceae and Polygonaceae. It is consistent with the results of previous morphological studies, and it also provides more information. Our study extends the range of time and object for dental calculus research, and offers more possibilities for research on feeding habits of ancient mammals.

提交时间: 2017-11-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量1970下载量410 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201708.00336 [pdf]

Morphological coevolution of the pygostyle and tail feathers in Early Cretaceous birds

WANG Wei; Jingmai K. O'CONNOR
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The transformation from a long reptilian tail to a shortened tail ending in a pygostyle and accompanied by aerodynamic fanning rectrices is one of the most remarkable adaptations of early avian evolution. However, no fossils directly capture this transition, and information regarding the structural morphology and the early evolution of the pygostyle in Mesozoic birds and their integuments is relatively limited. Here we provide a review of the pygostyle morphology of Early Cretaceous birds with comparison to the structure in living birds. This study emphasizes the convergent evolution of distally co-ossified caudal vertebrae in non-avian maniraptorans and early birds. There further exist distinct differences in pygostyle morphology between Sapeornithiformes, Confuciusornithiformes, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The morphology of the pygostyle and rectrices in early ornithuromorphs appear similar to that of extant birds, whereas the pygostyle in more primitive birds does not appear morphologically capable of supporting the rectricial bulbs and musculature necessary to control an aerodynamic fan-shaped tail. The rectricial bulbs and rectricial fan appear to have coevolved with the plough-shaped pygostyle early in the evolution of the Ornithuromorpha. This study also shows that the confuciusornithiform pygostyle was more similar to that of enantiornithines than previously recognized, consistent with the presence of nearly identical ornamental tail feathers in both groups. 从兽脚类恐龙中爬行类的骨质长尾,到以尾综骨为终端,并附着具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽的短巧尾部,是早期鸟类演化中最显著的适应性转变之一。但能直接反映这一转变的化石记录匮乏,而且对中生代鸟类尾部形态结构,以及尾综骨和尾羽早期演化的认知也相对不足。在此对早白垩世鸟类的尾综骨形态予以概述并将其与现生鸟类尾部结构类比。本研究强调了非鸟手盗龙类中尾椎的联合骨化与早期鸟类的尾综骨实属趋同演化。本研究表明,会鸟形类、孔子鸟形类、反鸟类和今鸟型类的尾综骨结构存在明显差异。今鸟型类尾综骨和尾羽(舵羽)与现代鸟类的相似,而相对更原始的鸟类的尾综骨,从形态来看,并不能支持舵羽球状膨大和必要的肌肉附着来操控具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽。由此可见,舵羽球状膨大、舵羽扇面与犁铧状的尾综骨是在今鸟型类演化早期相伴相生的。相对于从前的认知,本研究还发现孔子鸟类的尾综骨与反鸟类的有更多相似之处,与二者都具有的几乎相同的装饰性尾羽相符合。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量1609下载量428 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201708.00335 [pdf]

A new species of Brontotheriidae from the Middle Eocene of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China

Li Shuo
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

A new species of large Irdinmanhan brontothere, Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov., is described based on an incomplete skull which was collected from the Üqbulak Formation of Sangequan site, Junggar Basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new specimen can be assigned to the genus Epimanteoceras by the large superorbital processes, the broad frontal bone, the shallow central fossae on the molars, and the absence of the anterolingual cingular cusp on molars and the hypocone on M3. E. mae is characterized by the slightly laterally bowed zygomatic arches, the medially arched parasagittal ridges, the posteromedially angled external auditory pseudomeatus, and the prominent occipital pillar processes. E. mae and E. formosus are closely related. It is uncertain whether E. mae or E. formosus forms the sister group to Brontotheriina, but both of them are the basal group of the latter in the phylogenetic analysis. They are both closed to the Irdinmanhan brontothere Protitan grangeri from Nei Mongol but much primitive than Aktautitan hippopotamopus from Kazakhstan. The discovery of E. mae in Sangequan indicates that the age of Üqbulak Formation is Middle Eocene, and earlier than that of Kyzylbulak Formation bearing A. hippopotamopus in Kazakhstan. Moreover, the discovery of E. mae in Xinjiang expanded the distribution of the genus Epimanteoceras, which was only found in Nei Mongol previously. 新疆准噶尔盆地三个泉中始新世依希白拉组内发现的晚叉额雷兽属新种-马氏晚叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov.)是新疆目前发现保存最好的雷兽头骨化石。标本为一件不完整的头骨,缺失鼻骨,前颌骨,部分上颌骨和泪骨。新种具有眶上突较粗大,额骨宽阔平坦,臼齿有中心窝,臼齿舌侧齿带前部上的齿尖不发育,M3无次尖等晚叉额雷兽属的特征。新种的颧弓成向外扩的弓形,额顶嵴在后侧向内收缩弯曲的弧度更大,外耳道较为倾斜,枕柱上方有舌状的突起,与唯一的属型种娇晩叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras formosus)明显不同。马氏晚叉额雷兽同属型种关系最近,两者在系统发育分析中同为雷兽亚族(Brontotheriina)的基干类群,但是两者是否为后者的姊妹类群尚无法确定。和属型种一样,马氏晚叉额雷兽在演化程度上与内蒙古伊尔丁曼哈期的谷氏原雷兽(Protitan grangeri)接近,但与同时期地理位置更近的哈萨克斯坦的雷兽Aktautitan hippopotamopus相比,马氏晚叉额雷兽较原始,表明新种所在的地层时代很可能要早于发现A. hippopotamopus地层。三个泉剖面依希白拉组伊尔丁曼哈期内以前发现的化石较少,此次马氏晚叉额雷兽的发现,不仅扩大了晚叉额雷兽属的地理分布,亦为依希白拉组内存在伊尔丁曼哈期的沉积提供了新的佐证。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量969下载量373 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201708.00333 [pdf]

Cranial and dental material of Gomphotherium wimani (Gomphotheriidae, Proboscidea) from the Middle Miocene of the Linxia Basin, northwestern China

YANG Xiang Wen; LI Yu ; WANG Shi-Qi
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

嵌齿象是真象的基干类群,其研究历来受到重视,同时也存在很多争议。维曼嵌齿象(Gomphotherium wimani)是中国的一个特有种,之前仅有一些牙齿和破碎下颌的报道,研究者对其形态特征和演化地位的认识一直比较模糊。本文报道了发现于甘肃省临夏盆地的维曼嵌齿象的新材料,包括上沟地点一件未成年头骨和倒黑沟地点属于同一个体的部分颊齿。通过研究对比,认为维曼嵌齿象是嵌齿象中一个比较进步的种,具有如下独有特征:颊齿的主齿柱前后中心小尖分裂并成嵴状,副齿柱趋向于分裂,发育有弱的副齿柱中心小尖,齿谷中等开阔,齿冠相对较高。对过去发现的维曼嵌齿象材料的厘定表明,该种最初建立时产于泉头沟地点的一颗m3实际上是葛氏铲齿象(Platybelodon grangeri)的M3; 而西宁吊沟地点发现的维曼嵌齿象的一件M3极有可能属于铲齿象类(amebelodontids)。对厘定后的维曼嵌齿象地点的研究表明,维曼嵌齿象分布于中国甘肃、青海的几个中中新统地点,其时代基本上可以与MN6−MN7/8早期相对比,时代跨度估计为15~13 Ma。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量877下载量354 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201708.00332 [pdf]

Paleoecology of Cenozoic rhinos from northwest China: a stable isotope perspective

分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The diets and environments of fossil rhinocerotoids from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China, ranging in age from 25 to 2.5 Ma, were reconstructed based on bulk and serial carbon (C) and oxygen (O) isotope analyses of tooth enamel. The results support many previous hypotheses inferred from dentition and cranial and limb morphology and offer new insight on the paleoecology of some genera. The isotopic results support the following previous hypotheses: the Late Oligocene rhino Paraceratherium inhabited a forested environment, and the coexisting rhino Allacerops lived in a relatively open habitat and had a less specialized diet; the Middle Miocene Hispanotherium grazed in open territory, whereas the contemporaneous Alicornops had a more generalized diet in a forested environment; and the Late Miocene rhino Parelasmotherium grazed in an open steppe habitat. The isotope data indicate that the rhinos Acerorhinus and Dicerorhinus inhabited open steppe environments, inconsistent with previous inferences that these two rhinos dwelled in forested environments. The isotopic results are not conclusive concerning the habitat of Iranotherium, but support previous hypotheses that this rhino was a specialized C3 grazer. The results also suggest that Chilotherium was a forest-dweller throughout much of the Late Miocene, but occupied a more open environment by the end of the Late Miocene. Additionally, the results are consistent with previous hypotheses that the Pliocene rhino Shansirhinus and the Pleistocene rhino Coelodonta were grazers in open habitats. Finally, the C isotope data support that all rhinos in this study were pure C3 feeders, confirming that C4 grasses were not an important component of the plant biomass in the Linxia Basin from 25 to 2.5 Ma. 根据牙齿釉质的全样和系列碳、氧同位素分析,重建了甘肃临夏盆地25~2.5Ma期间犀牛的食性和环境。其结果支持先前根据牙齿和头骨-肢骨形态做出的一些推断,并对部分属的古生态提出了新的看法。同位素结果支持如下的推断:晚渐新世的巨犀Paraceratherium生活于森林环境,而与其共生的异角犀Allacerops栖息地相对开阔,食性特化程度低;中中新世的西班牙犀Hispanotherium在开阔领地上取食草本植物,而同时代的奇角犀Alicornops在森林环境中具有更特化的食性;晚中新世的副板齿犀Parelasmotherium在开阔的稀树草原上取食草本植物。与先前认为无鼻角犀Acerorhinus和额鼻角犀Dicerorhinus生活于森林化环境的推断不同,数据指示这两种犀牛也生活于开阔的稀树草原环境。同位素结果未能得出伊朗犀Iranotherium的确切生活环境,但支持先前认为它特化为C3草本植物取食者的推断。研究结果也显示大唇犀Chilotherium在晚中新世的大多数时间内是森林生活者,但其在晚中新世末期占据了更开阔的环境。此外,分析结果与先前的推断一致,即上新世的山西犀Shansirhinus和更新世的披毛犀Coelodonta是开阔生活环境中的食草者。最后,碳同位素数据支持在此项研究中的所有犀牛都是纯C3取食者,确认C4植物不是临夏盆地从25Ma到2.5Ma期间植被的重要成分。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量919下载量333 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201708.00331 [pdf]

Restudy of Regalerpeton weichangensis (Amphibia: Urodela) from the Lower Cretaceous of Hebei, China

分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Regalerpeton weichangensis was established in 2009 on an incomplete skeleton preserved mainly as an impression from the Lower Cretaceous of Hebei, China. However, several anatomical characters were misinterpreted due to distortion of the holotype, and its taxonomic position has been in debate. In this paper, R. weichangensis is redescribed based on eight new specimens and its diagnosis and phylogenetic position are re-examined. This work shows that R. weichangensis was a neotenic form with ossified carpals and tarsals. It has a series of unique combination of characteristics including the vomer with a transverse vomerine tooth row, anterior end of the cultriform process of the parasphenoid indented, basibranchial II triradiate and scapulocoracoid with a rectangular coracoid end. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Regalerpeton, Jeholotriton and Pangerpeton should be placed in the suborder Salamandroidea with three synapomorphies. Moreover, they also share unicapitate ribs with Cryptobranchoidea, which indicates that they represent an important stage of evolution in the Cryptobranchoidea-Salamandroidea split. 围场皇家螈(Regalerpeton weichangensis)于2009年基于一件产自河北围场下白垩统不完整的骨骼印痕标本命名。然而由于标本变形导致皇家螈的部分解剖学特征被曲解,系统发育位置也存在争论。本文基于八件新标本对该蝾螈的鉴定特征和系统发育位置进行了修订。研究显示,皇家螈是一种腕骨和跗骨骨化的幼态持续型蝾螈,具有独特的特征组合,包括犁骨齿列横向排列、副蝶骨前端呈齿状、基鳃骨II呈三射型以及肩胛乌喙骨的乌喙端呈矩形。新的系统发育分析根据三个近裔共性将围场皇家螈、热河螈和胖螈归入蝾螈亚目。此外,它们还与隐鳃鲵亚目共有“肋骨单关节头”这一特征,显示这三种蝾螈可能代表了隐鳃鲵亚目与蝾螈亚目分离时期这一重要演化阶段。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量816下载量312 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201708.00329 [pdf]

New fossils of Bos primigenius (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Nihewan and Longhua of Hebei, China

TONG Hao-Wen; CHEN Xi; ZHANG Bei; WANG Fa-Gang
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The new fossils of Bos primigenius in this study came from two regions in Hebei Province: Nihewan Basin (one partial skull with right horn-core and one humerus) and Longhua County (one humerus, one tibia, 2 calcanea and 3 astragali). The humerus from Nihewan has a total length of 457.3 mm, which almost represents the largest aurochs individual which has a two-meter shoulder height. The biggest humerus and other big cranial specimens in northern China can be correlated with the European counterparts of late Middle Pleistocene, and they should be contemporary. The smaller sized limb-bones from Longhua were unearthed from loess deposits, which can be attributed to Late Pleistocene. The current knowledge shows that aurochs may have arrived in China earlier than Late Pleistocene, because its associated taxa, e.g. Canis lupus, Panthera tigris, Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Sus scrofa, Camelus knoblochi, Cervus elaphus, Alces alces and Bison priscus have appeared as early as late Middle Pleistocene or even earlier in Eastern Europe and Northern Eurasia. Furthermore, new numerical dating results show that the aurochs’ occurrences from some sites in China can be traced back to Middle Pleistocene. This study proposes that the larger sized aurochs should be of a late Middle Pleistocene age. In China, aurochs fossils mainly occur in the northern part and the transitional zone along the Huaihe River, but are absent in southern China and Southeast Asia, which resulted in the hypothesis of “Central Asian Corridor” through which aurochs reached China. In recent years as more bovini fossils were recovered in Africa, the Bos phylogeny was proposed, which assumed that the evolution of Bos lineage took place in Africa rather than in Eurasia as thought before, and the earliest ancestor of B. primigenius is Pelorovis turkanensis, finally the genus Bos dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. The present authors think that the African Pelorovis species are too different from the Bos lineage in morphology; on the contrary, the early Bos species from Siwalik in South Asia resembles B. primigenius very much. In China, most of the B. primigenius fossils were recovered from fluvio-lacustrine deposits in North China Plain, Loess Plateau and Song-Nen Plain, whereas few of them were from loess deposit, which means that the aurochs fossils could be employed as an indicator of warm climate and wet environment. 原始牛(Bos primigenius)化石新材料包括泥河湾盆地禾尧庄的1件角心、上沙嘴的1件肱骨和承德隆化的1件肱骨、1件胫骨、1件踝骨、2件跟骨和3件距骨;其中上沙嘴的肱骨化石长达457.3 mm, 代表迄今在我国境内发现的最大原始牛个体,也是该种的最大记录之一,推算其所属动物的肩高接近2 m; 北京门头沟珠窝的原始牛头骨的眶后宽度及角心周长数据也是该种的最大记录之一;禾尧庄的角心标本稍小,但也比晚更新世多数同类要大;这些巨大的化石与欧洲中更新世晚期同类十分接近,其时代也应当与之相当,为中更新世晚期;过去认为原始牛在我国只出现于晚更新世地层,但现在看来该种在中更新世晚期就已扩散到中国。东欧及北亚的最新化石证据表明,过去认为与原始牛共生的晚更新世化石组合的常见属种早在中更新世晚期或更早时期就已出现,其中包括灰狼、虎、真猛犸象、马、真披毛犀、野猪、诺氏驼、赤鹿、驼鹿及草原野牛等。最新测年数据也表明中国北方有几个含原始牛化石的遗址是形成于中更新世晚期;本文认为华北和西北地区个体巨大的原始牛,代表中更新世晚期,而个体较小的则可能代表晚更新世或全新世;近些年在东北地区发现大量原始牛化石,但其中少见个体巨大者。在我国,原始牛化石分布只局限于北方及淮河过渡区,而在南方及毗邻的东南亚地区均未发现此类化石;因此,有人提出原始牛很可能是在中更新世中、晚期通过中亚走廊(Central Asian Corridor)进入中国。不过,近些年在非洲也发现了一些牛属(Bos)化石,因此有人又提出了牛属非洲起源的“奥杜威牛–牛属演化谱系”(Pelorovis–Bos lineage), 但该学说所依据的奥杜威牛化石材料,在形态结构上与牛属相去甚远,难以归入同类;此外,非洲可靠的牛属化石记录均未超过1 Ma。本文作者支持传统的牛属“南亚起源学说”,因为在南亚西瓦里克地区发现的早期牛属化石不仅时代更古老(早于2 Ma), 并且在形态上与原始牛更为相似。中国北方的原始牛化石主要发现于华北平原、黄土高原和松嫩平原的河湖相堆积层,仅极个别出现于黄土地层;由此推断原始牛可能更喜欢水系发育的林缘和/或沼泽环境。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量937下载量393 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201708.00327 [pdf]

High-precision temporal calibration of Middle Triassic vertebrate biostratigraphy: U-Pb zircon constraints for the Sinokannemeyeria Fauna and Yonghesuchus

LIU Jun; Jahandar RAMEZANI; LI Lu; SHANG Qing-Hua; XU Guang-Hui; WANG Yan-Yin; YANG Jia-Sheng
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Tetrapod assemblages provide a useful means for global correlation of the terrestrial Triassic sedimentary deposits, but currently no reliable temporal framework has been achieved for the Middle Triassic tetrapod assemblages. Here we report U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry dates for five volcanic ashes interbedded with vertebrate fossils from the Ermaying and Tongchuan formations of China. Our results support a late Anisian age for the Sinokannemeyeria Fauna and an early Ladinian age for Yonghesuchus Fauna. It is now possible, through biostratigraphic correlation, to provide accurate ages to other Middle Triassic successions such as the Upper Cynognathus Assemblage Zone of the Karoo of South Africa, the Eryosuchus fauna of the Donguz Suite of Russia and the Karamayi Formation of Xinjiang, China. The base of Anisian (Lower/Middle Triassic boundary) should lie below the base of the Ermaying Formation in the Ordos Basin. 四足动物组合带是全球陆相三叠系对比的有力手段,但是迄今为止中三叠世的四足动物组合尚没有可靠的时间框架。本文报道了五个采自二马营组和铜川组,与四足动物化石共同产出的火山凝灰岩样品的锆石化学剥蚀-热电离质谱法年龄。结果表明中国肯氏兽动物群时代为安尼期晚期,而永和鳄的时代为拉丁期早期。通过生物地层对比,这一结果还为其他中三叠世的四足动物组合,如南非的犬颌兽带上部、俄罗斯的引鳄动物群以及新疆的克拉玛依组提供了准确的年龄。鄂尔多斯盆地下中三叠统界线应低于二马营组底界。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量755下载量228 评论 0

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