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1. chinaXiv:201901.00109 [pdf]

Soil fixation and erosion control by Haloxylon persicum roots in arid lands, Iran

Ehsan ABDI; Hamid R SALEH
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

Vegetation roots contribute to soil fixation and reinforcement, thus improving soil resistance against erosion. Generally, the amount of soil fixation presented by roots mainly depends on root density and tensile strength. In the present study, we conducted the research in order to further understand the biotechnical properties of Haloxylon persicum and also to quantify its role in increasing soil cohesion in arid lands of Iran. Ten H. persicum shrubs were randomly selected for root distribution and strength investigations, in which five samples were set on flat terrain and other five samples on a moderate slope terrain. The profile trench method was used to assess the root area ratio (RAR) as the index of root density and distribution. Two profiles were dug around each sample, up and downslope for sloped treatment and north and south sides for flat treatment. The results showed that RAR increased with increasing soil depth and significantly decreased in 40–50 cm layers of downhill (0.320%) and 50–60 cm for uphill (0.210%). The minimum values for the northward and southward profiles were 0.003% and 0.003%, respectively, while the maximum values were 0.260% and 0.040%, respectively. The relationship between the diameter of root samples and root tensile strength followed a negative power function, but tensile force increased with increasing root diameter following a positive power function. The pattern of increased cohesion changes in soil profile was relatively similar to RAR curves. The maximum increased cohesion due to the presence of roots in uphill and downhill sides were 0.470 and 1.400 kPa, respectively. In the flat treatment, the maximum increased cohesions were 0.570 and 0.610 kPa in northward and southward profiles, respectively. The analysis of variance showed that wind and slope induced stresses did not have any significant effect on the amount of increased cohesion of H. persicum. The findings served to develop knowledge about biotechnical properties of H. persicum root system that can assist in assessing the efficiency of afforestation and restoration measures for erosion control in arid lands.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量458下载量101 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201812.00154 [pdf]

樟叶越桔组培苗生根和移栽技术研究

赵展平(1,2); 何芳(1); 唐军荣(2); 罗旭璐(2); 赵平(2); 黄荐(2); 丁勇(1)
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

樟叶越桔(Vaccinium dunalianum Wight)是广泛应用于化妆品行业皮肤美白的天然美白活性剂原料熊果普的主要植物来源之一,采用植物组织培养技术进行种苗繁殖时,现有的配方获得的生根苗基部会形成愈伤组织,影响移栽。为解决樟叶越桔组培苗生根质量不佳、移栽成活率低的问题,本研究以樟叶越桔继代苗为试验材料,采用单因子实验从激素类型及浓度、培养基类型和蔗糖质量浓度对其生根的适宜条件进行了筛选,并进一步研究了不同基质配比对樟叶越桔移栽苗存活率的影响。结果表明:激素种类和浓度、培养基类型对樟叶越桔生根率影响最大,其次为蔗糖质量浓度;最适合樟叶越桔生根的激素及浓度为IBA 2.0mg.L_1、基本培养基类型为1/4MS、蔗糖质量浓度为15 g}L-',樟叶越桔组培苗最佳生根培养基为1/4MS + IBA 2.0 mg}L-1+活性炭0.1 g}L-'+蔗糖15 g}L-',生根率达100%,平均生根数为7.67条/株;根系呈辐射状、基部无愈伤组织,组培苗生长健壮、叶色浓绿;樟叶越桔组培苗移栽时以全腐殖土基质为佳,成活率达83.7%,植株叶片舒展,生长状况良好。本研究建立的优化体系有效地提高了樟叶越桔组培生根苗的生根率和生根质量,解决了后期移栽成活困难的问题,为优良的樟叶越桔植株规模化生产提供了科学依据和技术支持。

提交时间: 2018-12-19 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量242下载量122 评论 0

3. chinaXiv:201811.00102 [pdf]

Phenotypic plasticity of Artemisia ordosica seedlings in response to different levels of calcium carbonate in soil

XUE Pingping; ZHAO Xuelai; GAO Yubao; HE Xingdong
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

Plant phenotypic plasticity is a common feature that is crucial for explaining interspecific competition, dynamics and biological evolution of plant communities. In this study, we tested the effects of soil CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) on the phenotypic plasticity of a psammophyte, Artemisia ordosica, an important plant species on sandy lands in arid and semi-arid areas of China, by performing pot experiments under different CaCO3 contents with a two-factor randomized block design and two orthogonal designs. We analyzed the growth responses (including plant height, root length, shoot-leaf biomass and root biomass) of A. ordosica seedlings to different soil CaCO3 contents. The results revealed that, with a greater soil CaCO3 content, A. ordosica seedlings gradually grew more slowly, with their relative growth rates of plant height, root length, shoot-leaf biomass and root biomass all decreasing significantly. Root N/P ratios showed significant negative correlations with the relative growth rates of plant height, shoot-leaf biomass and root length of A. ordosica seedlings; however, the relative growth rate of root length increased significantly with the root P concentration increased, showing a positive correlation. These results demonstrate that soil CaCO3 reduces the local P availability in soil, which produces a non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity to A. ordosica seedlings. This study should prove useful for planning and promoting the restoration of damaged/degraded vegetation in arid and semi-arid areas of China.

提交时间: 2018-11-23 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量558下载量231 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201807.00072 [pdf]

云南德宏傣族传统村落植物景观及应用研究

周静帆; 欧杨; 周丽; 刘昕岑; 包蓉
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

传统村落的植物景观,反应了一个民族在长期实践中积累的植物认知和应用经验,兼具地域自然性与文化性,从而对村落生态环境建设及民族植物的可持续性利用具有重要参考意义。该研究对云南省德宏州大盈江、瑞丽江流域的19个傣族传统村落进行植物景观及应用调查。结果表明:德宏傣族传统村落植物景观水平分布为寨外(山林绿块+农田绿块+护堤绿带)——寨边(防护绿环+高山榕绿块)——寨内(绿点+绿线)的格局;垂直分布有5个景观层次;村寨内常见植物共181种,73科;村寨内植物多为人工栽培,具较强实用性,主要应用功能集中在食用、药用、观赏、防护隔离、香薰调味等方面;傣寨植物人文景观具宗教色彩。建议加强植物水平分布的空间联系,建立稳定的绿地系统格局;保持植物垂直景观层次,推广植物的建造功能应用;充分利用植物资源,形成产业优势;传承优秀的植物文化景观。最终,推广植物在村落建设中的传统应用经验,促进民族村落与植物的可持续保护与发展。该研究成果对德宏傣族人居环境建设与民族植物学应用提供了科学依据。

提交时间: 2018-07-13 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量2022下载量824 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201807.00033 [pdf]

Grazing every month minimizes size but boosts photosynthesis in Stipa grandis in the steppe of Inner Mongolia, China

LI Xiaobing; HUANG Qi; MI Xue; BAI Yunxiao; ZHANG Meng; LI Xu
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

In order to explore the effects of grazing frequency on functional traits and to test whether Stipa gandis has compensatory photosynthesis during the frequent grazing period, we investigated morphological traits, biomass allocation, photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the species in Inner Mongolia, China. The grazing frequency treatments included fencing (T0), grazing in May and July (T1, i.e., two months per year) and grazing from May to September (T2, i.e., continuous five months per year). Results indicate that T1 and T2 treatments did not affect individual biomass, but T2 treatment negatively affected individual size, i.e., plant height, stem length, and leaf length. Physiological traits of S. grandis were significantly affected by grazing, year, and their interaction. In July 2014 (i.e., dry environment and low relative humidity), the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were highest under T2 treatment, which was caused by the increase in stomatal conductance. However, in July 2015 (i.e., wet environment and high relative humidity), the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency were higher under T1 and T2 treatments, which were caused by the increase in actual quantum efficiency and stomatal conductance. Our results implied that under frequent grazing treatment, S. grandis had small height and efficient compensatory photosynthesis, which promoted its resistance to severe grazing.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量1200下载量261 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201807.00034 [pdf]

Precipitation amount and frequency affect seedling emergence and growth of Reaumuria soongarica in northwestern China

SHAN, Lishan; ZHAO, Wenzhi; LI, Yi; ZHANG, Zhengzhong; XIE, Tingting
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

Climate change is shifting the amount and frequency of precipitation in many regions, which is expected to affect seedling recruitment across ecosystems. However, the combined effects of precipitation amount and frequency on seedling recruitment remain largely unknown. An understanding of the effects of precipitation amount and frequency and their interaction on seedling emergence and growth of typical desert plants is vital for managing populations of desert plants. We conducted two experiments to study the effects of variation in precipitation on Reaumuria soongarica (Pall.) Maxim. First, greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effects of three precipitation amount treatments (ambient, +30%, and −30%) and two precipitation frequency treatments (ambient and −50%) on seedling emergence. Second, the morphological responses of R. soongarica to changes in precipitation amount and frequency were tested in a controlled field experiment. Stage-specific changes in growth were monitored by sampling in different growth seasons. Our results showed that precipitation amount significantly affected germination, seedling emergence, and growth of R. soongarica, and there was a larger effect with decreased precipitation frequency compared with ambient. Germination and seedling emergence increased as precipitation increased under the same frequency of precipitation. The highest emergence percentage was obtained with a 30% increase in precipitation amount and a 50% reduction in precipitation frequency. Compared with ambient precipitation, a 30% increase in precipitation amount increased above- and below-ground biomass accumulation of R. soongarica during the growth season. A decrease of 30% in precipitation amount also resulted in an increase in below-ground biomass and root/shoot ratio in the early stages of the growth season, however, above- and below-ground biomass showed the opposite results at the end of the growth season, with larger effects on above-ground than below-ground biomass under decreased precipitation frequency. When precipitation frequency decreased by 50%, values of all growth traits increased for a given amount of precipitation. We concluded that precipitation frequency may be as important as precipitation amount to seedling emergence and growth of R. soongarica, and that understanding the effects of precipitation variability on seedling recruitment requires the integration of both precipitation amount and frequency. In particular, the combination of a 30% increase in precipitation amount and 50% reduction in precipitation frequency increased the emergence and growth of seedlings, suggesting that alteration of amount and frequency of precipitation caused by climate change may have significant effects on seedling recruitment of R. soongarica.

提交时间: 2018-07-05 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量1357下载量284 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201806.00134 [pdf]

鄱阳湖苦草及马来眼子菜PSⅡ荧光参数对水深变化的光响应

高桂青; 吕顺华; 吕念泽; 卢龙; 李威; 计勇; 游济康; 万鹏
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

:以鄱阳湖湿地典型沉水植物苦草和马来眼子菜为供试材料, 通过吊桶实验控制水位,利用水下饱和脉冲调制叶绿素荧光仪(Diving-pam)研究不同水深(0.5、1.0、1.5、2.0、2.5 m)对两种植物叶片最小荧光Fo、最大荧光Fm、 PSⅡ最大光化光效率Fv/Fm、有效量子产量Y(Ⅱ)、光化学淬灭系数qP、非光化学淬灭系数qN、非调节性能量耗散的量子产量Y(NO)等荧光参数的影响,探讨各个参数随水深的变化规律。研究结果表明:水深1.5-2.0 m处苦草生物量最大,1.0-1.5 m处马来眼子菜生物量最大;两种植物的Fo均先降低后升高,而荧光参数(FmFv/FmFv/FoY(Ⅱ)qP)均呈现先升高后降低趋势;2.0 m处苦草的Fv/Fm、Fv/Fo达到最大,1.5 m处马来眼子菜达到最大;相同水深下,马来眼子菜的qN比苦草低,与qP变化趋势相反;苦草的Y(Ⅱ)最大值出现在水深1.5-2.0 m范围内,马来眼子菜的Y(Ⅱ)最大值出现在1.5 m处;两者Y(NO)随水深变化均表现出显著差异,过高或过低水深均抑制植物生长;相对光合电子传递速率ETR在不同的水深处理间均差异显著,苦草的最大ETR比马来眼子菜小,说明其有较强的耐弱光能力。综上所述,可通过测定植物叶片荧光特性来反映水深变化,为湖泊水位调控提供参考。在试验条件下,水深1.5-2.0 m苦草光合能力最强,最适宜生长;水深1.0-1.5 m最适宜马来眼子生长。

 

 

提交时间: 2018-06-19 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量1063下载量307 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201806.00135 [pdf]

芦苇腐解土中酚酸类化感物质的水分响应特性研究

孙盈; 李萍萍2; 付为国
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

芦苇和虉草均具有较强的去污能力,常作为湿地植物配置于同一人工湿地进行污水处理。芦苇作为一种强化感植物对虉草具有较强的化感作用,在自然湿地和人工湿地中均会出现芦苇代替虉草的现象,且这一现象的发生与土壤含水量存在一定联系,此外,有研究表明芦苇腐解土对虉草的化感抑制效应与腐解土中总酚酸的量密切相关。因此,该文采用高效液相色谱法对不同水分环境下芦苇腐解土中酚酸类物质进行分离和鉴定,研究芦苇腐解土中主要酚酸类物质的水分响应特性,筛选出其中对水分响应较为明显的酚酸物质种类,通过湿地土壤水分调控,以达成虉草芦苇间的竞争平衡,从而维持人工湿地中两物种的长期稳定共存。结果显示:芦苇腐解土中可分离出没食子酸、香豆酸、香草酸、丁香酸、对香豆酸、阿魏酸、水杨酸和苯甲酸等8 种酚酸类物质,其中,香豆酸、苯甲酸和阿魏酸等3种酚酸类物质含量较高。分离出的8种酚酸类物质的含量与腐解土的相对含水量均呈显著线性负相关关系,即随着腐解土相对含水量的上升,酚酸类物质的含量均呈现下降趋势,且各种酚酸类物质对水分的响应趋势均可用线性方程较好地拟合。其中,香豆酸、没食子酸和阿魏酸对芦苇腐解土的水分响应最为明显。因此,可将香豆酸、没食子酸和阿魏酸作为主要调控目标,通过调控湿地土壤中水分含量,削弱芦苇对虉草的化感抑制效应,从而维持虉草芦苇群落的稳定。

提交时间: 2018-06-19 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量767下载量319 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201806.00021 [pdf]

古林箐秋海棠叶斑结构对叶色的影响

杜文文; 崔光芬; 王继华; 段青; 马璐琳; 贾文杰; 王祥宁
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

以古林箐秋海棠(Begonia gulinqingensis)为材料,通过分析叶片形态特征、上表皮光学特性、组织结构、叶绿素含量及叶绿素荧光参数Fv/Fm探讨叶片色斑形成原因。结果表明:古林箐秋海棠叶斑发生频率和数量无明显规律,但发生部位相对稳定,叶斑主要发生在正对叶柄的两条主脉之间。斑区有两种光反射模式,点状反射和多角形反射,栅栏组织细胞呈近等轴的圆形,排列疏松,与上表皮细胞间存在空隙;非斑区只有点状反射模式,栅栏组织细胞为漏斗型,排列紧密,与上表皮细胞间不存在空隙。斑区和非斑区叶绿体均有密集的堆积基粒和丰富的类囊体膜,斑区叶绿素a、b及总叶绿素含量仅比非斑区分别低24.9%,25.2%,25.1%;叶绿素荧光参数Fv/Fm值斑区为0.793,非斑区为0.790。虽然斑区叶绿素含量比非斑区略低,但叶绿体结构完整,且叶绿素荧光参数与非斑区无显著差异。斑区上表皮与栅栏组织细胞间的空隙可使光线到达绿色组织时发生二次反射,在叶片表皮细胞边缘形成白色多边形光反射使该区域相对周围正常叶片区域偏白,基于上述结果可推测古林箐秋海棠的淡绿色块斑形成与特殊的叶片结构有关。

提交时间: 2018-06-12 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量1168下载量489 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201806.00022 [pdf]

无菌猕猴桃种子采集方法研究

孙菁婕; 杨迪; 邹婷婷; 赵新仕; 唐娟; 史佳杰; 张乃群
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

无菌的猕猴桃种子是猕猴桃胚乳培养、实生苗微嫁接等技术的基础材料,利用消毒剂灭菌是常用的无菌种子采集手段,应用最广泛的消毒剂为升汞(Mercuric chloride)和次氯酸钠(NaClO)。该文提出了一种新的无菌猕猴桃种子采集方法——无菌搅拌法,为了探索其准确性和应用性,该研究比较了0.2 %升汞灭菌20 min、10 %次氯酸钠灭菌20 min、无菌搅拌法3种方式采集无菌猕猴桃种子的效果,及对种子萌发和幼苗形成的影响。结果表明:无菌搅拌法、0.2 %升汞灭菌20 min是稳定有效的无菌猕猴桃采集方式,10 %次氯酸钠灭菌20 min的采集效果不稳定;在相同的时间内,无菌搅拌法的种子发芽率最高,为89.90 %,但发芽势较低,均可正常成苗;10 %次氯酸钠灭菌20 min的发芽率次之,与无菌搅拌法的种子无显著差异,发芽势和成苗率最高,分别为47.47 %和67.86 %,且有打破猕猴桃种子休眠的作用,整体作用类似于赤霉素(GA3)浸种的效果;0.2 %升汞灭菌20 min对猕猴桃种子的萌发有抑制作用,各项指标均显著低于无菌搅拌法种子,且生长缓慢。此外,无菌搅拌法是物理处理,对种子、操作人员、环境均无害。该研究证实了无菌搅拌法的实用性和优势,发现了次氯酸钠在打破猕猴桃种子休眠方面的作用,为其它同类型果实的无菌种子采集提供了参考。

提交时间: 2018-06-12 来自合作期刊:《广西植物》 点击量1012下载量326 评论 0

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