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1. chinaXiv:201901.00105 [pdf]

Hydrological and economic feasibility of mitigating a stressed coastal aquifer using managed aquifer recharge: a case study of Jamma aquifer, Oman

Mustafa EL-RAWY; Ali AL-MAKTOUMI
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

This study explored the hydrological and economic feasibility of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) using tertiary treated wastewater (TWW) to mitigate salinity in the coastal aquifer of Jamma, Oman. A steady-state groundwater flow and transport model, using MODFLOW software, was developed and calibrated. Different managerial scenarios were simulated and the results reveal that the Jamma aquifer will be further deteriorated in the next 20 a if it remains unmanaged. The groundwater table will decline further by more than 3 m on average; and the iso-concentration salinity line of 1500 mg/L will advance 2.7 km inland, which will severely affect the farming activities in the area. However, MAR using TWW when integrated with the management of groundwater abstraction (e.g., using modern irrigation systems to reduce the abstraction rate) becomes hydrologically feasible to augment the aquifer storage and control seawater intrusion, and hence improves the farming activities. The results indicate that: (1) injecting TWW in the vicinity of irrigation wells (Scenario A2); (2) investing in smart water meters and online control of pumping from the wells to reduce the abstraction rate by 25% (Scenario B); and (3) a combination of both (Scenario B2) are feasible scenarios with positive net present values. Recharge in upstream areas is found not economically feasible because of the very high investment cost of the installation of pipes to transport the TWW over a distance of 12.5 km. Because of securing funds are challenging, Scenario B would be the best option and the second-best option is Scenario A2. Scenario B2 has the lowest net benefit investment ratio and is very attractive because it entails integrated demand and supply management of groundwater. It is required to reduce pumping and to invest in injecting TWW to improve groundwater quality in the vicinity of irrigation wells and to form a hydrological barrier to control seawater intrusion in the long run.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量9下载量2 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201901.00106 [pdf]

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ameliorate the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere soil in reclaimed mining subsidence in northwestern China

QIU Lang; BI Yinli
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

In semi-arid region of northwestern China, underground mining subsidence often results in decreased vegetation coverage, impoverishment of soil fertility and water stress. In addition, the physical-chemical and biological properties of soil also change, resulting in more susceptible to degradation. In particular, subsidence causes disturbance of the symbioses of plant and microbe that can play a beneficial role in the establishment of vegetation communities in degraded ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of revegetation with exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum on the chemical and biological properties of soil over time in mining subsidence areas. Soils were sampled at a depth up to 30 cm in the adjacent rhizosphere of Amorpha fruticose Linn. from five reclaimed vegetation communities in northwestern China. In August 2015, a field trial was set up with five historical revegetation experiments established in 2008 (7-year), 2011 (4-year), 2012 (3-year), 2013 (2-year) and 2014 (1-year), respectively. Each reclamation experiment included two treatments, i.e., revegetation with exotic AMF inoculum (AMF) and non-AMF inoculum (the control). Root mycorrhizal colonization, glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nutrients, and enzyme activities were also assessed. The results showed that mycorrhizal colonization of inoculated plants increased by 33.3%–163.0% compared to that of non-inoculated plants (P<0.05). Revegetation with exotic AMF inoculum also significantly improved total GRSR (T-GRSP) and easily extracted GRSP (EE-GRSP) concentrations compared to control, besides the T-GRSP in 1-year experiment and the EE-GRSP in 2-year experiment. A significant increase in SOC content was only observed in 7-year AMF reclaimed soils compared to non-AMF reclaimed soils. Soil total N (TN), Olsen phosphorus (P) and available potassium (K) were significantly higher in inoculated soil after 1–7 years of reclamation (except for individual cases), and increased with reclamation time (besides soil Olsen P). The exotic AMF inoculum markedly increased the average soil invertase, catalase, urease and alkaline phosphatase by 23.8%, 21.3%, 18.8% and 8.6%, respectively (P<0.01), compared with the control. Root mycorrhizal colonization was positively correlated with soil parameters (SOC, TN and soil available K) and soil enzyme activities (soil invertase, catalase, urease and alkaline phosphatase) in both AMF and non-AMF reclaimed soils (P<0.05), excluding available K in non-AMF reclaimed soils. T-GRSP (P<0.01) and EE-GRSP (P<0.05) were significantly correlated with the majority of edaphic factors, except for soil Olsen P. The positive correlation between root mycorrhizal colonization and available K was observed in AMF reclaimed soils, indicating that the AMF reclaimed soil with a high root mycorrhizal colonization could potentially accumulate available K in soils. Our findings concluded that revegetation with exotic AMF inoculum influenced soil nutrient availability and enzyme activities in the semi-arid ecosystem, suggesting that inoculating AMF can be an effective method to improve soil fertility and support restoration of vegetation communities under poor conditions like soil nutrient deficiency and drought.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量6下载量1 评论 0

3. chinaXiv:201901.00112 [pdf]

Interaction between climate and management on beta diversity components of vegetation in relation to soil properties in arid and semi-arid oak forests, Iran

Heydari MEHDI; Aazami FATEMEH
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

This study aimed to investigate the interaction between regions with different climatic conditions (arid vs. semi-arid) and management (protected vs. unprotected) on the turnover and nestedness of vegetation in relation to physical, chemical and biological properties of soils in the Ilam Province of Iran. In each of the two regions, we sampled 8 sites (4 managed and 4 unmanaged sites) within each of which we established 4 circular plots (1000 m2) that were used to investigate woody species, while two micro-plots (1 m×1 m) were established in each 1000-m2 plot to analyze herbaceous species. In each sample unit, we also extracted three soil samples (0–20 cm depth) for measuring soil properties. The results indicated that the interaction between region and conservational management significantly affected the percent of canopy cover of Persian oak (Quercus brantii Linddl), soil respiration, substrate-induced respiration, as well as beta and gamma diversities and turnover of plant species. The percent of oak canopy cover was positively correlated with soil silt, electrical conductivity, available potassium, and alpha diversity, whereas it was negatively correlated with plant turnover. In addition, plant turnover was positively related to available phosphorus, while nestedness of species was positively related to organic carbon and total nitrogen. According to these results, we concluded that physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of limited ecological niche generally influenced plant diversity. Also, this study demonstrated the major contribution of the beta diversity on gamma diversity, especially in semi-arid region, because of the higher heterogeneity of vegetation in this area.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量7下载量2 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201901.00113 [pdf]

Environmental factors influencing snowfall and snowfall prediction in the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

ZHANG Xueting; LI Xuemei; LI Lanhai
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

Snowfall is one of the dominant water resources in the mountainous regions and is closely related to the development of the local ecosystem and economy. Snowfall predication plays a critical role in understanding hydrological processes and forecasting natural disasters in the Tianshan Mountains, where meteorological stations are limited. Based on climatic, geographical and topographic variables at 27 meteorological stations during the cold season (October to April) from 1980 to 2015 in the Tianshan Mountains located in Xinjiang of Northwest China, we explored the potential influence of these variables on snowfall and predicted snowfall using two methods: multiple linear regression (MLR) model (a conventional measuring method) and random forest (RF) model (a non-parametric and non-linear machine learning algorithm). We identified the primary influencing factors of snowfall by ranking the importance of eight selected predictor variables based on the relative contribution of each variable in the two models. Model simulations were compared using different performance indices and the results showed that the RF model performed better than the MLR model, with a much higher R2 value (R2=0.74; R2, coefficient of determination) and a lower bias error (RSR=0.51; RSR, the ratio of root mean square error to standard deviation of observed dataset). This indicates that the non-linear trend is more applicable for explaining the relationship between the selected predictor variables and snowfall. Relative humidity, temperature and longitude were identified as three of the most important variables influencing snowfall and snowfall prediction in both models, while elevation, aspect and latitude were of secondary importance, followed by slope and wind speed. These results will be beneficial to understand hydrological modeling and improve management and prediction of water resources in the Tianshan Mountains.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量6下载量1 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201901.00114 [pdf]

Climate change, water resources and sustainable development in the arid and semi-arid lands of Central Asia in the past 30 years

YU Yang; PI Yuanyue; YU Xiang
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

The countries of Central Asia are collectively known as the five ''-stans'': Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. In recent times, the Central Asian region has been affected by the shrinkage of the Aral Sea, widespread desertification, soil salinization, biodiversity loss, frequent sand storms, and many other ecological disasters. This paper is a review article based upon the collection, identification and collation of previous studies of environmental changes and regional developments in Central Asia in the past 30 years. Most recent studies have reached a consensus that the temperature rise in Central Asia is occurring faster than the global average. This warming trend will not only result in a higher evaporation in the basin oases, but also to a significant retreat of glaciers in the mountainous areas. Water is the key to sustainable development in the arid and semi-arid regions in Central Asia. The uneven distribution, over consumption, and pollution of water resources in Central Asia have caused severe water supply problems, which have been affecting regional harmony and development for the past 30 years. The widespread and significant land use changes in the 1990s could be used to improve our understanding of natural variability and human interaction in the region. There has been a positive trend of trans-border cooperation among the Central Asian countries in recent years. International attention has grown and research projects have been initiated to provide water and ecosystem protection in Central Asia. However, the agreements that have been reached might not be able to deliver practical action in time to prevent severe ecological disasters. Water management should be based on hydrographic borders and ministries should be able to make timely decisions without political intervention. Fully integrated management of water resources, land use and industrial development is essential in Central Asia. The ecological crisis should provide sufficient motivation to reach a consensus on unified water management throughout the region.

提交时间: 2019-01-17 来自合作期刊:《Journal of Arid Land》 点击量6下载量1 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201901.00077 [pdf]

民居型景区空间分布特征及影响因素研究 ——以山西大院民居为例

芦学良; 王国梁; 胡炜霞; 晋宇; 闫宇
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

民居大院景区是人文景观中最主要的组成部分。本文以山西省136个“山西大院名居型景区”为研究对象,通过谷歌地球(Google Earth)、百度地图确定坐标基本地理信息。运用Arcgis10.3空间分析法进行可视化表达,分析山西大院景区的空间分布格局及影响因素。结果表明:①山西11个地市的136个大院景区整体空间分布上呈现较均匀状态。②山西大院景区存在较为明显的空间差异,形成七个明显密度集聚中心与两个密度集聚区域,整体分布方向将沿东北—西南方向布局。③市域分布不均衡,呈现集中于以晋中、晋城为依托的周边地区。④高程空间格局显示,74.26%的大院景区海拔高度在1500m~2500m范围中,海拔从宏观上影响大院景区的总体空间格局。⑤大院景区整体距河流平均距离为2.3km,且具有沿河流走势分布的特征。⑥大院景区分布具有倾向城市格局,表现为中心-外围逐渐递减的特点。

提交时间: 2019-01-11 来自合作期刊:《干旱区地理》 点击量35下载量6 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201901.00079 [pdf]

新疆绿洲城镇组群内部经济联系及空间差异测度研究

李雪梅
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

绿洲城镇组群是新疆特殊区域形成的规模相对较小的单一中心空间自组织模式。运用城市中心性指数、城市经济联系模型和Theil系数对新疆八大绿洲城镇组群内部城镇中心性、经济联系及空间差异测度。结果显示:绿洲城镇组群内部的中心城市的中心性职能较强,周边城镇的中心性职能相对较弱,形成了单中心的空间自组织模式;绿洲城镇组群内部经济联系量和经济联系隶属度大小的排序一致,离中心城市的距离越近、经济发展水平越高,经济联系隶属度越高;近10 a年来绿洲城镇组群的整体空间差异一直在扩大,且呈现出继续扩大趋势。在此基础上,提出了建立区域合作协调机制、明确城镇组群发展方向、增强中心城市的辐射带动作用、实现产业合理分工以及构建制度保障体系促进绿洲城镇组群的协同发展。

提交时间: 2019-01-11 来自合作期刊:《干旱区地理》 点击量30下载量7 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201901.00080 [pdf]

基于MODIS和TRMM数据的黄土高原 农业干旱监测

胡鹏飞; 李净; 王丹; 黄康刚
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

农业干旱对农业生产影响最为严重,基于站点观测数据的干旱指数不能准确监测区域尺度的农业干旱特征。因此,本文利用2003—2010年MODIS地表温度(LST)、植被指数(NDVI)和TRMM降水(3B43)数据以及1960—2015年黄土高原地区及周边92个气象站点的月均温和月降水量数据,构建了综合遥感干旱监测模型规模干旱条件指数(Scale Drought Condition Index,SDCI),对黄土高原地区农用地生长季(4~10月)旱情的时空分布特征进行研究,结果表明:黄土高原地区农用地生长季多年平均干旱状态为中度干旱,干旱程度在空间上表现为西北部较严重,东南部较轻。2003—2010年黄土高原地区旱情年际变化呈缓慢加重趋势,2003—2007年旱情持续加重,2007—2009旱情缓慢减轻,2009—2010年旱情又加重。黄土高原地区旱情年内变化表现4-8月持续减轻,8-10月持续加重,干旱程度具体表现为4月呈严重干旱,5月、6月和10月呈中度干旱,7月、8月和9月呈轻度干旱。研究表明利用多源遥感数据构建的具有适当权重的SDCI可以有效监测黄土高原地区作物生长季的干旱状况。

提交时间: 2019-01-11 来自合作期刊:《干旱区地理》 点击量35下载量7 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201901.00081 [pdf]

2000-2016年中亚天山植被变化及气候分异研究

陈秀妍; 付碧宏; 时丕龙; 郭强
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

本研究利用MODIS-NDVI产品生成中亚天山2000-2016年植被覆盖度,利用线性回归法和偏相关法分析了中亚天山植被时空变化特征及驱动因子。结果表明:中亚天山植被生长及变化趋势具有显著的区域分异性,纬度分区上,中天山和北天山西部植被覆盖度较高的草原、农田和森林在2000-2016年呈现退化趋势;南天山和北天山东部植被覆盖度较低的荒漠、草原和灌丛在同期表现出改善趋势,而中国境内的东天山与境外的西天山相比具有较低的植被覆盖度以及总体改善的变化趋势。中亚天山气候在2000-2016年显示出“暖湿化”特征,温度升高幅度(5.9%)远大于降水增加幅度(1.3%),温度、降水与植被覆盖度的显著相关比例为18.0%和42.6%,降水是中亚天山植被变化的主要气候驱动因素。以巴音布鲁克草原为代表的东天山部分草原受到过度放牧的影响而退化严重,建议加强植被退化区的生态修复与保护力度。

提交时间: 2019-01-11 来自合作期刊:《干旱区地理》 点击量30下载量5 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201901.00082 [pdf]

基于CiteSpace国内干旱遥感监测的知识图谱分析

王建勋; 华丽; 邓世超; 孔祥茹; 王惠东
分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学

利用CiteSpace软件对1995~2017年中国知网的“SCI来源期刊”、“EI来源期刊”、“核心期刊”以及“CSSCI来源期刊”数据库中有关干旱遥感监测研究的642篇文献进行可视化分析得到知识图谱。结果表明:国内经历了传统基于站点的干旱监测、小范围的干旱遥感监测试验到大范围干旱遥感监测及应用三个阶段;干旱遥感监测主要从“干旱监测”、“遥感监测”、“温度植被干旱指数”、“土壤湿度”、“地表温度”以及“归一化植被指数”等方向展开;王鹏新、张树誉、张强等是主要的发文作者;中国科学院、中国气象局、中国农业大学等是主要的发文机构。基于多源信息的干旱综合监测模型、大范围干旱监测评估、预警以及决策支持系统、干旱遥感监测技术在社会服务方面的应用以及加强国内学者与机构之间的交流合作是未来国内干旱监测研究几个重要方面。

提交时间: 2019-01-11 来自合作期刊:《干旱区地理》 点击量36下载量7 评论 0

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