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1. chinaXiv:201904.00092 [pdf]

反驳文本对患方信任和道德判断的影响与机制

吕小康; 付春野; 汪新建
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

采用反驳文本范式对患方进行知识修正,提升患方对医方的信任和道德判断。预试验编制反驳文本并验证其有效性,实验1验证反驳文本可以显著提高患方的对医信任和道德判断,并发现医疗结果是影响患方信任和对医道德判断的重要因素。实验2和实验3探究了反驳文本有效性的作用机制及适用普遍性,发现不确定性容忍度和宽容度在反驳文本和患方信任及道德判断之间呈链式中介作用,且反驳文本可在脱离医学情境的作用下普遍提升患方信任。

submitted time 2019-04-20 Hits653Downloads258 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201904.00089 [pdf]

发展性阅读障碍儿童阅读中的眼跳定位缺陷:基于新词学习的实验证据

梁菲菲; 马杰; 李馨; 连坤予; 谭珂; 白学军
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

通过与生理年龄匹配儿童比较新词重复学习中眼跳定位模式变化的异同,探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词学习中的眼跳定位是否存在缺陷。以发展性阅读障碍儿童和生理年龄匹配儿童为被试,采用重复学习新词范式,结果发现:(1)与生理年龄匹配组相比,发展性阅读障碍儿童跳入新词的眼跳距离较短、多次注视中的首次注视落点位置更靠近词首;(2)生理年龄匹配组儿童利用学习次数调节新词眼跳定位模式的能力高于发展性阅读障碍儿童,即随着新词学习次数的增加,生理年龄匹配组儿童跳入和跳出新词的眼跳距离随之增长,首次注视落点位置更靠近词中心;相比之下,发展性阅读障碍儿童仅在跳出新词的眼跳距离上有所增长,但增加幅度也显著小于生理年龄匹配组。结果表明,发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词学习中的眼跳定位,及利用学习次数对眼跳定位的调节上均表现出一定缺陷。

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits856Downloads53 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201904.00088 [pdf]

公平或是利益:权力对分配公平感的影响

孙倩; 龙长权; 王修欣; 刘永芳
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

通过3个实验逐步考察了高、低权力个体对三种分配方案(公平/劣势不公平/优势不公平)的公平感。结果发现:(1)被试的公平评级从高到低依次为公平、优势不公平、劣势不公平,做出评级的反应时则从快到慢依次为公平、劣势不公平、优势不公平;(2)相对于低权力被试,高权力被试对劣势不公平分配的公平评级更低,而对公平分配和优势不公平分配的公平评级更高,且做出公平判断的反应时更短。基于这些结果,作者提出了公平与利益权衡的公平优先效应及权力的自我增强假设,以更好地理解权力和公平的本质及二者的关系。

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits751Downloads35 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201904.00091 [pdf]

Monitoring the Dynamics of Field-Saturated Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in a Wastewater Irrigated Cropland [V5].pdf

Siyi Zhang; Isaac Hopkins; Li Guo; Henry Lin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The maintenance of adequate hydraulic conductivity is a basic priority for the function and sustainability of long-term wastewater irrigated lands. An effective procedure to measure in situ hydraulic conductivity quickly, easily, and reliably is still elusive. This study aims to compare the performance of DualHead Infiltrometers, a novel instrument designed to measure field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) quickly and in an automated fashion, with different parameters and old infiltrometer designs; and to investigate the dynamics of Kfs in a cropland that has been spray-irrigated with treated wastewater for fifty years. Our results showed that a modified procedure with a longer, single pressure cycle yielded results with lower coefficients of variation (CVs) for both pressures and infiltration rates, and performed better than the original procedure with two short pressure recycles. Kfs values measured by DualHead Infiltrometers were similar to those measured by double-ring infiltrometers in most conditions. Viscosity-corrected Kfs on irrigated croplands was 123.8±94.0 mm h-1, insignificantly higher than that on the non-irrigated croplands, 103.2±94.6 mm h-1. We observed seasonal variations in Kfs values between winter and summer conditions, but infiltration rates during all seasons remained much higher than the spray irrigation rate (4.25 mm h-1). Nevertheless, with CVs greater than 67%, caution must be exercised to ensure that hydraulic conductivity remains high enough to prevent runoff at all times, especially during winter frozen conditions.

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits1214Downloads32 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201904.00078 [pdf]

效应量置信区间的原理及其实现

王珺; 宋琼雅; 许岳培; 贾彬彬; 胡传鹏
Subjects: Psychology >> Statistics in Psychology

在心理学可重复危机的背景之下,报告效应量及其置信区间正逐渐成为主流心理学界所要求的新标准,但是研究者可能对效应量的置信区间缺乏足够的理解。为增强研究者对效应量置信区间的理解及应用,本文介绍了心理学研究中最常用的效应量指标——Cohen's d与η²——的置信区间的基本原理,即,在备择假设(H1)为真时,需要通过迭代估计的方式来估计相应非中心分布的非中心分布参数,从而构建Cohen's d与η²的置信区间。其中Cohen's d对应的是非中心t分布;而η²对应的则是非中心F分布。使用现有的计算机程序,能够对Cohen's d与η²的置信区间进行计算,例如 R与JASP,本文对此进行了分别展示。报告效应量置信区间不仅有助于研究者更好地进行统计推断,也有利于整个科学界知识的积累,因此本文介绍的方法对研究者具有十分重要的意义。

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits957Downloads311 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201904.00087 [pdf]

德性与德行:道德决策中的提问框架效应

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

道德双加工理论预测关注德行的提问框架(道德行为)下相比于关注德性的提问框架(道德判断)下决策更偏向于义务论或者对规范的敏感性更高,而认知失调的行动模型的预测则恰好相反。本研究通过3个实验探讨了这一道德决策中的提问框架效应。实验1(N=578)设置经典道德两难情境,并给被试提供一个规范禁止但利大于弊的行为提议,被试对该提议的道德性(道德判断)和执行意愿(道德行为)进行道德决策,结果发现道德行为框架下比道德判断框架下对提议的赞同程度更高,即更偏离义务论或者更偏向功利主义。实验2(N=177)操纵规范和结果设计出相同情境的四个版本,即规范提倡或禁止且结果利大于弊或弊大于利,被试阅读每个版本的提议后回答与实验1相同的道德决策问题,结果验证了实验1并发现道德行为框架比道德判断框架下的决策是增强了结果的影响而且减弱了规范的影响,即更偏离义务论并且更偏向功利主义。实验3(N=205)使用CNI模型(Consequence, Norm and general Inaction/action preference)分离出结果敏感性,规范敏感性和一般性不作为/作为倾向,结果验证了实验1、2,并发现道德行为框架比道德判断框架增强了结果敏感性,削弱了规范敏感性,增强了一般性不作为倾向。3个实验综合表明道德行为框架比道德判断框架会导致更强的功利主义倾向,更弱的义务论倾向和更强的一般性不作为倾向,支持了认知失调的行动模型而不支持道德双加工理论,说明道德决策也会受到动机加工的影响。

submitted time 2019-04-15 Hits865Downloads50 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201802.00685 [pdf]

An Explanation of the Interactions between Waves and Electrons: Discussion of Electromagnetic Fields

Weiye Xu
Subjects: Physics >> The Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.

submitted time 2019-04-12 Hits2191Downloads860 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201904.00084 [pdf]

A simulation study of GNSS-R polarimetric scattering from the bare soil surface based on the AIEM model

吴学睿
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geochemistry

In the past two decades, Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a new remote sensing technique for soil moisture monitoring. Some experiments showed that the antenna of V polarization is more favorable to receive the reflected signals, and the interference pattern technique (IPT) was used for soil moisture and other geophysical parameters retrieval. Meanwhile, the lower satellite elevation angles are most impacted by the multipath. However, electromagnetic theoretical properties are not clear for GNSS-R soil moisture retrieval. In this paper, the Advanced Integral Equation Model (AIEM) is employed using the wave synthesis technique to simulate different polarimetric scattering at the specular directions. Results show when the incidence angles are larger than 70º, scattering at RR polarization (The transmitted signal is Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP), while the received one is also RHCP) is larger than that one at LR polarization (The transmitted signal is RHCP, while the received one is Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP)), while scattering at LR polarization is larger than that at RR polarization for the other incident angles(1º~70º). There is an apparent dip for VV and VR scattering due to the Brewster angle, which will result in the notch in the final receiving power and this phenomenon can be used for soil moisture retrieval or vegetation corrections. The volumetric soil moisture (vms) effects on their scattering are also presented. The larger soil moisture will result in lower scattering at RR polarization, and this is very different from the scattering of the other polarizations. It is interesting to note that the surface correlation function only affects the amplitudes of the scattering coefficients at much less level, but it has no effects on the angular trends of RR and LR polarizations.

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits681Downloads60 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201904.00085 [pdf]

全极化GNSS-R陆面参数延迟多普勒图模型

吴学睿; 金双根
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geodestics

目前,针对GNSS-R的研究多从观测角度出发,对其散射机理研究相对较少。本文针对GNSS-R(GNSS-Reflectometry)反射信号陆面参数的延迟多普勒图理论模型展开研究,对于陆面参数(裸土、植被)的双站散射特性的计算采用修改后的随机粗糙面散射模型和零阶/一阶辐射传输方程模型。通过该模型模拟分析了裸土、植被参数变化时,相应的延迟多普勒图的变化。同时为利用极化信息进行相应地物参数的后向反演,模型中增加全极化计算功能。全极化GNSS+R陆面参数延迟多普勒图理论模型的研究有助于星载数据的解释、地表实验设计、数据仿真和后向反演算法的开发。

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits1742Downloads396 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201904.00081 [pdf]

接圆回归

何沧平
Subjects: Mathematics >> Computational Mathematics.

本文提出一个名为接圆回归的点击率预测新方法,尝试替代常用的因子分解机(FM)。接圆回归用超平面拼接出一个封闭凸多面体,圈出正样本,有直观的几何解释, 能从任意初始值一次收敛到全局最优解。 拟合出来的曲面Lipschitz连续,变化平缓。在人工设计的星环集、双堆集、双月集上,接圆回归的分类准确性、解释性、平滑性全面超过FM。在同量级参数量、计算量 的条件下,接圆回归在Avazu集和Criteo集上的AUC超过FM。

submitted time 2019-04-10 Hits842Downloads83 Comment 0

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