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1. chinaXiv:201605.00423 [pdf]

内蒙古半干旱草原土壤水分对降水格局变化的响应

陈敏玲; 张兵伟; 任婷婷; 王姗姗; 陈世苹
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

在全球气候变化背景下, 未来我国北方半干旱地区的降水格局将呈现出季节与年际间降水波动增强和极端降水事件增加的趋势。水分是半干旱草原的主要限制因子, 降水格局变化导致的土壤水分状况的改变必然对生态系统的结构和功能产生显著的影响。该研究选取内蒙古多伦、锡林浩特两个典型半干旱草原群落, 通过分析2006–2013年的降水和多层次(0–10 cm、10 cm、20 cm、30 cm和50 cm)土壤含水量连续观测数据, 研究降水格局变化对土壤水分状况及其垂直分布的影响, 特别是土壤水分对降水事件的脉冲响应过程。结果表明: 两个站点的土壤含水量均呈现显著的季节及年际间波动, 其中, 深层水分波动相对较小, 表层水分波动相对剧烈。锡林浩特50 cm深处土壤含水量波动较大, 主要由于春季融雪对深层水分的补充。年际间多伦和锡林浩特生长季表层土壤含水量与降水量存在显著的正相关关系, 下层土壤含水量与降水量相关性不显著。研究发现最小2 mm的降水事件能够引起两个站点表层土壤含水量的升高, 即该地区有效降水为日降水量>2 mm。表层土壤含水量对独立降水事件的脉冲响应可通过一个指数方程很好地拟合出来。降水事件的大小决定了雨后表层土壤含水量的最大增量和持续时间, 同时这个脉冲响应过程还受到雨前土壤含水量的影响, 但该过程中并未发现植被因子(叶面积指数)的显著影响。降水后水分下渗深度及该深度的土壤含水量增量主要由降水事件大小主导, 同时受到雨前土壤含水量的影响。在多伦和锡林浩特, 平均每增加1 mm降水, 下渗深度分别增加1.06和0.79 cm。由此我们认为, 在内蒙古半干旱草原, 降水事件大小和雨前土壤干湿状况是影响土壤水分对降水响应的主要因素, 而植被因子的影响较小。

提交时间: 2016-06-13 点击量12666下载量1098 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01830 [pdf]

Flood and drought tolerance in rice: opposite but may coexist

A. N. M. Rubaiyath Bin Rahman; Jianhua Zhang
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Flood and drought are the two most prevalent abiotic stresses causing major yield reduction globally. In the last decade, molecular mechanisms of flood tolerance in rice have been revealed with successful release of flash flood-tolerant varieties to farmers. However, despite extensive research, the breakthrough of drought tolerance is still to come. In this review, we have examined the distribution and population types of drought-and flood-tolerant rice accessions, synthesized recent progresses of flood and drought tolerance research, and proposed a hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms of both drought and flood tolerance may be regulated by cross-talked pathways and coexist in aus subpopulation.We conclude that it is the time to mine the key regulator(s) of drought tolerance through de novo assembly of drought-tolerant aus landrace(s) with other molecular approaches and develop drought-tolerant rice using genome manipulation weaponry.

提交时间: 2016-05-30 点击量1661下载量512 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.00550 [pdf]

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) offers sustainable bioenergy production and resilience to climate change

Nick A. Owen; Kieran F. Fahy; Howard Griffiths
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Biomass production on low-grade land is needed to meet future energy demands and minimize resource conflicts. This, however, requires improvements in plant water-use efficiency (WUE) that are beyond conventional C3 and C4 dedicated bioenergy crops. Here we present the first global-scale geographic information system (GIS)-based productivity model of two highly water-efficient crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) candidates: Agave tequilana and Opuntia ficus-indica. Features of these plants that translate to WUE advantages over C3 and C4 bioenergy crops include nocturnal stomatal opening, rapid rectifier-like root hydraulic conductivity responses to fluctuating soil water potential and the capacity to buffer against periods of drought. Yield simulations for the year 2070 were performed under the four representative concentration pathway (RCPs) scenarios presented in the IPCC's 5th Assessment Report. Simulations on low-grade land suggest that O. ficus-indica alone has the capacity to meet ‘extreme’ bioenergy demand scenarios (>600 EJ yr−1) and is highly resilient to climate change (−1%). Agave tequilana is moderately impacted (−11%). These results are significant because bioenergy demand scenarios >600 EJ yr−1 could be met without significantly increasing conflicts with food production and contributing to deforestation. Both CAM candidates outperformed the C4 bioenergy crop, Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in arid zones in the latitudinal range 30°S–30°N.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1408下载量445 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.00549 [pdf]

Exploring soil microbial 16S rRNA sequence data to increase carbon yield and nitrogen efficiency of a bioenergy crop

Leonardo M. Pitombo; Janaína B. do Carmo; Mattias de Hollander; Raffaella Rossetto; Maryeimy V. López; Heitor Cantarella; Eiko E. Kuramae
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Crop residues returned to the soil are important for the preservation of soil quality, health, and biodiversity, and they increase agriculture sustainability by recycling nutrients. Sugarcane is a bioenergy crop that produces huge amounts of straw (also known as trash) every year. In addition to straw, the ethanol industry also generates large volumes of vinasse, a liquid residue of ethanol production, which is recycled in sugarcane fields as fertilizer. However, both straw and vinasse have an impact on N2O fluxes from the soil. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is a primary concern in biofuel sustainability. Because bacteria and archaea are the main drivers of N redox processes in soil, in this study we propose the identification of taxa related with N2O fluxes by combining functional responses (N2O release) and the abundance of these microorganisms in soil. Using a large-scale in situ experiment with ten treatments, an intensive gas monitoring approach, high-throughput sequencing of soil microbial 16S rRNA gene and powerful statistical methods, we identified microbes related to N2O fluxes in soil with sugarcane crops. In addition to the classical denitrifiers, we identified taxa within the phylum Firmicutes and mostly uncharacterized taxa recently described as important drivers of N2O consumption. Treatments with straw and vinasse also allowed the identification of taxa with potential biotechnological properties that might improve the sustainability of bioethanol by increasing C yields and improving N efficiency in sugarcane fields.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1380下载量435 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.00548 [pdf]

The effect of biochar management on soil and plant community properties in a boreal forest

Michael J. Gundale; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson; Nathalie Pluchon; David A. Wardle
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Biochar management has been proposed as a possible tool to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and thus far its impacts in forested environments remain poorly understood. We conducted a large-scale, replicated field experiment using 0.05-ha plots in the boreal region in northern Sweden to evaluate how soil and vegetation properties and processes responded to biochar application and the disturbance associated with burying biochar in the soil. We employed a randomized block design, where biochar and soil mixing treatments were established in factorial combination (i.e., control, soil mixing only, biochar only, and biochar and soil mixing; n = 6 plots of each). After two growing seasons, we found that biochar application enhanced net soil N mineralization rates and soil inline image concentrations regardless of the soil mixing treatment, but had no impact on the availability of inline image , the majority of soil microbial community parameters, or soil respiration. Meanwhile, soil mixing enhanced soil inline image concentrations, but had negative impacts on net N mineralization rates and several soil microbial community variables. Many of the effects of soil mixing on soil nutrient and microbial community properties were less extreme when biochar was also added. Biochar addition had almost no effects on vegetation properties (except for a small reduction in species richness of the ground layer vegetation), while soil mixing caused significant reductions in graminoid and total ground layer vegetation cover, and enhanced seedling survival rates of P. sylvestris, and seed germination rates for four tree species. Our results suggest that biochar application can serve as an effective tool to store soil C in boreal forests while enhancing inline image availability. They also suggest that biochar may serve as a useful complement to site preparation techniques that are frequently used in the boreal region, by enhancing soil fertility and reducing nutrient losses when soils are scarified during site preparation.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1243下载量438 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.00546 [pdf]

Environmental costs and benefits of growing Miscanthus for bioenergy in the UK

Jon P. McCalmont; Astley Hastings; Niall P. McNamara; Goetz M. Richter; Paul Robson; Iain S. Donnison; John Clifton-Brown
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Planting the perennial biomass crop Miscanthus in the UK could offset 2–13 Mt oil eq. yr−1, contributing up to 10% of current energy use. Policymakers need assurance that upscaling Miscanthus production can be performed sustainably without negatively impacting essential food production or the wider environment. This study reviews a large body of Miscanthus relevant literature into concise summary statements. Perennial Miscanthus has energy output/input ratios 10 times higher (47.3 ± 2.2) than annual crops used for energy (4.7 ± 0.2 to 5.5 ± 0.2), and the total carbon cost of energy production (1.12 g CO2-C eq. MJ−1) is 20–30 times lower than fossil fuels. Planting on former arable land generally increases soil organic carbon (SOC) with Miscanthus sequestering 0.7–2.2 Mg C4-C ha−1 yr−1. Cultivation on grassland can cause a disturbance loss of SOC which is likely to be recovered during the lifetime of the crop and is potentially mitigated by fossil fuel offset. N2O emissions can be five times lower under unfertilized Miscanthus than annual crops and up to 100 times lower than intensive pasture. Nitrogen fertilizer is generally unnecessary except in low fertility soils. Herbicide is essential during the establishment years after which natural weed suppression by shading is sufficient. Pesticides are unnecessary. Water-use efficiency is high (e.g. 5.5–9.2 g aerial DM (kg H2O)−1, but high biomass productivity means increased water demand compared to cereal crops. The perennial nature and belowground biomass improves soil structure, increases water-holding capacity (up by 100–150 mm), and reduces run-off and erosion. Overwinter ripening increases landscape structural resources for wildlife. Reduced management intensity promotes earthworm diversity and abundance although poor litter palatability may reduce individual biomass. Chemical leaching into field boundaries is lower than comparable agriculture, improving soil and water habitat quality.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1173下载量417 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.00545 [pdf]

Nitrogen rate and landscape impacts on life cycle energy use and emissions from switchgrass‐derived ethanol

Eric G. Mbonimpa; Sandeep Kumar; Vance N. Owens; Rajesh Chintala; Heidi L. Sieverding; James J. Stone
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Switchgrass-derived ethanol has been proposed as an alternative to fossil fuels to improve sustainability of the US energy sector. In this study, life cycle analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the environmental benefits of this fuel. To better define the LCA environmental impacts associated with fertilization rates and farm-landscape topography, results from a controlled experiment were analyzed. Data from switchgrass plots planted in 2008, consistently managed with three nitrogen rates (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1), two landscape positions (shoulder and footslope), and harvested annually (starting in 2009, the year after planting) through 2014 were used as input into the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in transportation (GREET) model. Simulations determined nitrogen (N) rate and landscape impacts on the life cycle energy and emissions from switchgrass ethanol used in a passenger car as ethanol–gasoline blends (10% ethanol:E10, 85% ethanol:E85s). Results indicated that E85s may lead to lower fossil fuels use (58 to 77%), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (33 to 82%), and particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (15 to 54%) in comparison with gasoline. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other criteria pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), and sulfur dioxides (SOx) were higher for E85s than those from gasoline. Nitrogen rate above 56 kg N ha−1 yielded no increased biomass production benefits; but did increase (up to twofold) GHG, VOCs, and criteria pollutants. Lower blend (E10) results were closely similar to those from gasoline. The landscape topography also influenced life cycle impacts. Biomass grown at the footslope of fertilized plots led to higher switchgrass biomass yield, lower GHG, VOCs, and criteria pollutants in comparison with those at the shoulder position. Results also showed that replacing switchgrass before maximum stand life (10–20 years.) can further reduce the energy and emissions reduction benefits.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1264下载量379 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.00544 [pdf]

Global change synergies and trade‐offs between renewable energy and biodiversity

Andrea Santangeli; Tuuli Toivonen; Federico Montesino Pouzols; Mark Pogson; Astley Hastings; Pete Smith; Atte Moilanen
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

Reliance on fossil fuels is causing unprecedented climate change and is accelerating environmental degradation and global biodiversity loss. Together, climate change and biodiversity loss, if not averted urgently, may inflict severe damage on ecosystem processes, functions and services that support the welfare of modern societies. Increasing renewable energy deployment and expanding the current protected area network represent key solutions to these challenges, but conflicts may arise over the use of limited land for energy production as opposed to biodiversity conservation. Here, we compare recently identified core areas for the expansion of the global protected area network with the renewable energy potential available from land-based solar photovoltaic, wind energy and bioenergy (in the form of Miscanthus × giganteus). We show that these energy sources have very different biodiversity impacts and net energy contributions. The extent of risks and opportunities deriving from renewable energy development is highly dependent on the type of renewable source harvested, the restrictions imposed on energy harvest and the region considered, with Central America appearing at particularly high potential risk from renewable energy expansion. Without restrictions on power generation due to factors such as production and transport costs, we show that bioenergy production is a major potential threat to biodiversity, while the potential impact of wind and solar appears smaller than that of bioenergy. However, these differences become reduced when energy potential is restricted by external factors including local energy demand. Overall, we found that areas of opportunity for developing solar and wind energy with little harm to biodiversity could exist in several regions of the world, with the magnitude of potential impact being particularly dependent on restrictions imposed by local energy demand. The evidence provided here helps guide sustainable development of renewable energy and contributes to the targeting of global efforts in climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1232下载量444 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.00543 [pdf]

Utilizing biofuels for sustainable development in the panel of 17 developed and developing countries

Ilhan Ozturk
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学

This study investigates the dynamic linkages between biofuels production and sustainable indicators in the panel of 17 developed and developing countries, over the period of 2000–2012. The study emphasized the role of biofuels production in the sustainable development of the region. For this purpose, the study utilized four main sustainable indicators including carbon dioxide emissions, energy intensity, renewable energy generation, and total population that have a significant impact on the biofuels production. The study used dynamic heterogeneous panel econometric technique – Generalized Method of Moments and found that carbon dioxide emissions increase along with the increase in biofuels production. Therefore, the caution should be applied when burning the biofuels during the production process. In addition, renewable electricity generation also increases the biofuels production in the region. The results of robust least square regression confirmed that all of the sustainable indicators have a significant association with the biofuels production, as total primary energy consumption increases the biofuels production, while total population significantly decreases the biofuels production in the region. The results derived to the conclusion that for sustainable development in the region, the policymakers should have to formulate carbon free policies that coupled with the renewable energy sources for emphasizing the life cycle of bioenergy during the production process.

提交时间: 2016-05-04 点击量1061下载量379 评论 0

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