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Halos in a deformed Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum

Lulu Li; Jie Mengh; P. RingEn-Guang ZhaoShan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

In this contribution we present some recent results about neutron halos in deformed nuclei. A deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum has been developed and the halo phenomenon in deformed weakly bound nuclei is investigated. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nuclei 42Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the existence of halos in deformed nuclei and for the occurrence of this decoupling effect are discussed. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories were developed recently. In these theories, all shape degrees of freedom βλμ deformations with even μ are allowed, e.g., β20, β22, β30, β32, β40, β42, β44, and so on and the CDFT functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. In this contri- bution, some applications of these theories are presented. The potential energy surfaces of actinide nuclei in the (β20 , β22 , β30 ) deformation space are investigated. It is found that besides the octupole deformation, the triaxiality also plays an important role upon the second fission barriers. The non-axial reflection-asymmetric β32 shape in some transfermium nuclei with N = 150, namely 246Cm, 248Cf, 250Fm, and 252No are studied. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We have developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFT) for finite nuclei in which the shape degrees of freedom βλμ with even μ, e.g., β20, β22, β30, β32, β40, etc., can be described simultaneously. The functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. For the pp channel, either the BCS approach or the Bogoliubov transformation is implemented. The MDC-CDFTs with the BCS approach for the pairing (in the following labelled as MDC-RMF models with RMF standing for “relativistic mean field”) have been applied to investigate multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces and the non-axial octupole Y32-correlations in N = 150 isotones. In this contribution we present briefly the formalism of MDC-RMF models and some results from these models. The potential energy surfaces with and without triaxial deformations are compared and it is found that the triaxiality plays an important role upon the second fission barriers of actinide nuclei. In the study of Y32-correlations in N = 150 isotones, it is found that, for 248Cf and 250Fm, β32 > 0.03 and the energy is lowered by the β32 distortion by more than 300 keV; while for 246Cm and 252No, the pocket with respect to β32 is quite shallow. |

Microscopic and self-consistent description for neutron halo in deformed nuclei

Lulu Li; Jie Meng; P. Ring; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

AdeformedrelativisticHartree-Bogoliubovtheoryincontinuumhasbeendevelopedfor the study of neutron halos in deformed nuclei and the halo phenomenon in deformed weakly bound nuclei is investigated. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and some results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nuclei 44Mg and 36Ne. The core of the former nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the existence of halos in deformed nuclei and for the occurrence of this decoupling effect are discussed. |

Nuclear superfluidity for antimagnetic rotation in 105Cd and 106Cd

Zhen-Hua Zhang; Peng-Wei Zhao; Jie MengJin-Yan Zeng; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The effects of nuclear superfluidity on antimagnetic rotation bands in 105Cd and 106Cd are in- vestigated by the cranked shell model with the pairing correlations and the blocking effects treated by a particle-number conserving method. The experimental moments of inertia and the reduced B(E2) transition values are excellently reproduced. The nuclear superfluidity is essential to repro- duce the experimental moments of inertia. The two-shears-like mechanism for the antimagnetic rotation is investigated by examining the shears angle, i.e., the closing of the two proton hole angular momenta, and its sensitive dependence on the nuclear superfluidity is revealed. |

Pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonances in spherical square wells

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Background: The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) has been studied extensively for bound states. Recently we justified rigorously that the PSS in single particle resonant states is exactly conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials of the Dirac Hamiltonian have the same magnitude but opposite sign [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 072501 (2012)]. Purpose: To understand more deeply the PSS in single particle resonant states, we focus on several issues related to the exact conservation and breaking mechanism of the PSS in single particle resonances. In particular, we are interested in how the energy and width splittings of PS partners depend on the depth of the scalar and vector potentials. Methods: We investigate the asymptotic behaviors of radial Dirac wave functions. Spherical square well poten- tials are employed in which the PSS breaking part in the Jost function can be well isolated. By examining the zeros of Jost functions corresponding to small components of the radial Dirac wave functions, general properties of the PSS are analyzed. Results: By examining the Jost function, the occurrence of intruder orbitals is explained and it is possible to trace continuously the PSS partners from the PSS limit to the case with a finite potential depth. The dependence of the PSS in resonances as well as in bound states on the potential depth is investigated systematically. We find a threshold effect in the energy splitting and an anomaly in the width splitting of pseudospin partners when the depth of the single particle potential varies from zero to a finite value. Conclusions: The conservation and the breaking of the PSS in resonant states and bound states share some similar properties. The appearance of intruder states can be explained by examining the zeros of Jost functions. Origins of the threshold effect in the energy splitting and the anomaly in the width splitting of PS partners, together with many other problems, are still open and should be further investigated. |

Recent progresses on the pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) is a relativistic dynamical symmetry directly connected with the small component of the nucleon Dirac wave function. Much effort has been made to study this symmetry in bound states. Recently, a rigorous justification of the PSS in single particle resonant states was achieved by examining the asymptotic behaviors of the radial Dirac wave functions: The PSS in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved exactly when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. Several issues related to the exact conservation and breaking mechanism of the PSS in single particle resonances were investigated by employing spherical square well potentials in which the PSS breaking part can be well isolated in the Jost function. A threshold effect in the energy splitting and an anomaly in the width splitting of pseudospin partners were found when the depth of the square well potential varies from zero to a finite value. |

Hidden pseudospin and spin symmetries and their origins in atomic nuclei

Haozhao Liang; Jie Meng; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Symmetry plays a fundamental role in physics. The quasi-degeneracy between single-particle orbitals (n, l, j = l + 1/2) and (n − 1, l + 2, j = l + 3/2) indicates a hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei, the so-called pseudospin symmetry (PSS). Since the introduction of the concept of PSS in atomic nuclei, there have been comprehensive efforts to understand its origin. Both splittings of spin doublets and pseudospin doublets play critical roles in the evolution of magic numbers in exotic nuclei discovered by modern spectroscopic studies with radioactive ion beam facilities. Since the PSS was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, many special features, including the spin symmetry (SS) for anti-nucleon, and many new concepts have been introduced. In the present Review, we focus on the recent progress on the PSS and SS in various systems and potentials, including extensions of the PSS study from stable to exotic nuclei, from non-confining to confining potentials, from local to non-local potentials, from central to tensor potentials, from bound to resonant states, from nucleon to anti-nucleon spectra, from nucleon to hyperon spectra, and from spherical to deformed nuclei. Open issues in this field are also discussed in detail, including the perturbative nature, the supersymmetric representation with similarity renormalization group, and the puzzle of intruder states. |

Halos in medium-heavy and heavy nuclei with covariant density functional theory in continuum

J Meng; S G ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The covariant density functional theory with a few number of parameters has been widely used to describe the ground-state and excited-state properties for the nuclei all over the nuclear chart. In order to describe exotic properties of unstable nuclei, the contribution of the continuum and its coupling with bound states should be treated properly. In this Topical Review, the development of the covariant density functional theory in continuum will be introduced, including the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory, the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in continuum, and the deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum. Then the descriptions and predictions of the neutron halo phenomena in both spherical and deformed nuclei will be reviewed. The diffuseness of the nuclear potentials, nuclear shapes and density distributions, and the impact of the pairing correlations on nuclear size will be discussed. |

Decipher the short-distance component of $X(3872)$ in $B_c$ decays

Wei Wang; Qiang ZhaoSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

A foremost task in understanding the nature of the X(3872) involves the discrimination of the two-quark and multiquark configurations. In this work, we propose a method to probe the short-distance component of the X(3872) by measuring the ratio between the Bc semileptonic and nonleptonic decays into the X(3872). We demonstrate that if the X(3872) production mechanism is through the c¯c component, the ratios would be universal and could be reliably predicted in theory. Measurements of these ratios at LHC and the next-generation electron-positron colliders are capable of validating/invalidating this production mechanism and providing deeper insights into the nature of the X(3872). |