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1. chinaXiv:202105.00004 [pdf]

Drought trend analysis in a semi-arid area of Iraq based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index and Standardized Precipitation Index

Ayad M F AL-QURAISHI; Heman A GAZNAYEE; Mattia CRESPI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Drought was a severe recurring phenomenon in Iraq over the past two decades due to climate change despite the fact that Iraq has been one of the most water-rich countries in the Middle East in the past. The Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) is located in the north of Iraq, which has also suffered from extreme drought. In this study, the drought severity status in Sulaimaniyah Province, one of four provinces of the IKR, was investigated for the years from 1998 to 2017. Thus, Landsat time series dataset, including 40 images, were downloaded and used in this study. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were utilized as spectral-based drought indices and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was employed as a meteorological-based drought index, to assess the drought severity and analyse the changes of vegetative cover and water bodies. The study area experienced precipitation deficiency and severe drought in 1999, 2000, 2008, 2009, and 2012. Study findings also revealed a drop in the vegetative cover by 33.3% in the year 2000. Furthermore, the most significant shrinkage in water bodies was observed in the Lake Darbandikhan (LDK), which lost 40.5% of its total surface area in 2009. The statistical analyses revealed that precipitation was significantly positively correlated with the SPI and the surface area of the LDK (correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.72, respectively). The relationship between SPI and NDVI-based vegetation cover was positive but not significant. Low precipitation did not always correspond to vegetative drought; the delay of the effect of precipitation on NDVI was one year.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits495Downloads97 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202105.00005 [pdf]

Enhancement of freshwater production of the seawater greenhouse condenser

Tahani K BAIT SUWAILAM; Abdulrahim M AL-ISMAILI; Nasser A AL-AZRI; L H Janitha JEEWANTHA; Hemesiri KOTAGAMA
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Seawater greenhouse (SWGH) is a technology established to overcome issues related to open field cultivation in arid areas, such as the high ambient temperature and the shortage of freshwater. It adopts the humidification-dehumidification concept where evaporated moisture from a saline water source is condensed to produce freshwater within the greenhouse body. Various condenser designs are adopted to increase freshwater production in order to meet the irrigation demand. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the practicality of using the packed-type direct contact condenser in the SWGH to produce more freshwater at low costs, simple design and high efficiency, and to explore the impact of the manipulating six operational variables (inlet air temperature of the humidifier, air mass flowrate of the humidifier, inlet water temperature of the humidifier, water mass flowrate of the humidifier, inlet water temperature of the dehumidifier and water mass flowrate of the dehumidifier) on freshwater condensation rate. For this purpose, a direct contact condenser was designed and manufactured. Sixty-four full factorial experiments were conducted to study the effect of the six operational variables. Each variable was operated at two levels (high and low flowrate), and each experiment lasted for 10 min and followed by a 30-min waiting time. Results showed that freshwater production varied between 0.257 and 2.590 L for every 10 min. When using Minitab statistical software to investigate the significant variables that contributed to the maximum freshwater production, it was found that the inlet air temperature of the humidifier had the greatest influence, followed by the inlet water temperature of the humidifier; the former had a negative impact while the latter had a positive impact on freshwater production. The response optimizer tool revealed that the optimal combination of variables contributed to maximize freshwater production when all variables were in the high mode and the inlet air temperature of the humidifier was in the low mode. The comparison between the old plastic condenser and the new proposed direct contact condenser showed that the latter can produce 75.9 times more freshwater at the same condenser volume.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits547Downloads120 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202105.00006 [pdf]

Potential reduction in water consumption of greenhouse evaporative coolers in arid areas via earth-tube heat exchangers

Abdulrahim M AL-ISMAILI; Moustafa A FADEL; Hemantha JAYASURIYA; L H Janitha JEEWANTHA; Adel AL-MAHDOURI; Talal AL-SHUKEILI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

This study aimed to explore the potential of developing a novel cooling system combining a greenhouse and an earth-tube heat exchanger (ETHE). In this system, greenhouse air is circulated through the underneath soil mass to use the deep-soil cooling effect. This was achieved through the following steps. First, soil temperature profile inside and outside the cultivated greenhouse was monitored for almost one year to study the possibility of using deep-soil coldness for cooling the greenhouse air. Second, a prototype ETHE was built to practically investigate the potential reduction in air temperature as the air flows inside the deep earth pipes. Third, a prototype greenhouse was erected to study the ETHE concept. Results from the first experiment revealed that soil temperature at a soil depth of 2.5 m inside the greenhouse offers good conditions to bury the ETHE. The soil temperature at this soil depth was below the maximum temperature (32°C) that most greenhouse crops can withstand. Results from the prototype ETHE showed a slight reduction in air temperature as it passed through the pipes. From the prototype of the integrated greenhouse and ETHE system, reduction in air temperature was observed as the air passed through the ETHE pipes. At night, the air was heated up across the ETHE pipes, indicating that the ETHE was working as a heater. We concluded from this study that greenhouses in arid climates can be cooled using the ETHE concept which would save a large amount of water that would otherwise be consumed in the evaporative coolers. Further investigations are highly encouraged.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits533Downloads94 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202105.00007 [pdf]

Water, land, and energy use efficiencies and financial evaluation of air conditioner cooled greenhouses based on field experiments

Ibtihal AL-MANTHRIA; Abdulrahim M AL-ISMAILIA; Hemesiri KOTAGAMAB; Mumtaz KHANC; L H Janitha JEEWANTHAD
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

High temperature and humidity can be controlled in greenhouses by using mechanical refrigeration cooling system such as air conditioner (AC) in warm and humid regions. This study aims to evaluate the techno-financial aspects of the AC-cooled greenhouse as compared to the evaporative cooled (EV-cooled) greenhouse in winter and summer seasons. Two quonset single-span prototype greenhouses were built in the Agriculture Experiment Station of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, with dimensions of 6.0 m long and 3.0 m wide. The AC-cooled greenhouse was covered by a rockwool insulated polyethylene plastic sheet and light emitting diodes (LED) lights were used as a source of light, while the EV-cooled greenhouse was covered by a transparent polyethylene sheet and sunlight was used as light source. Three cultivars of high-value lettuce were grown for experimentation. To evaluate the technical efficiency of greenhouse performance, we conducted measures on land use efficiency (LUE), water use efficiency (WUE), gross water use efficiency (GWUE) and energy use efficiency (EUE). Financial analysis was conducted to compare the profitability of both greenhouses. The results showed that the LUE in winter were 10.10 and 14.50 kg/m2 for the AC- and EV-cooled greenhouses, respectively. However, the values reduced near to 6.80 kg/m2 in both greenhouses in summer. The WUE of the AC-cooled greenhouse was higher than that of the EV-cooled greenhouse by 3.8% in winter and 26.8% in summer. The GWUE was used to measure the total yield to the total greenhouse water consumption including irrigation and cooling water; it was higher in the AC-cooled greenhouse than in the EV-cooled greenhouse in both summer and winter seasons by almost 98.0%–99.4%. The EUE in the EV-cooled greenhouse was higher in both seasons. Financial analysis showed that in winter, gross return, net return and benefit-to-cost ratio were better in the EV-cooled greenhouse, while in summer, those were higher in the AC-cooled greenhouse. The values of internal rate of return in the AC- and EV-cooled greenhouses were 63.4% and 129.3%, respectively. In both greenhouses, lettuce investment was highly sensitive to changes in price, yield and energy cost. The financial performance of the AC-cooled greenhouse in summer was better than that of the EV-cooled greenhouse and the pattern was opposite in winter. Finally, more studies on the optimum LED light intensity for any particular crop have to be conducted over different growing seasons in order to enhance the yield quantity and quality of crop.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits450Downloads71 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202105.00008 [pdf]

Source identification of nitrate in the upper aquifer system of the Wadi Shueib catchment area in Jordan based on stable isotope composition

Mutawakil OBEIDAT; Muheeb AWAWDEH; Noor AL-KHARABSHEH; Ahmad AL-AJLOUNI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Groundwater forms the main freshwater supply in arid and semi-arid areas, and contamination of this precious resource is complicated by the slow rate of recharge in these areas. Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a global water quality problem, as it entails threat to human health as well as aquatic ecosystems. Source identification of contamination is the cornerstone and a prerequisite for any effective management program of water quality. Stable isotope composition of the dissolved nitrate (δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3–) has been applied to identify NO3– sources and the main transformation processes in the upper aquifer system (A1/2, A4, and B2/A7 aquifers) in the Wadi Shueib catchment area, Jordan. Moreover, the stable isotope compositions of the groundwater (δ2H-H2O and δ18O-H2O) in conjunction with the groundwater hydrochemistry were integrated to investigate the origin and evolution of the groundwater. Results revealed that groundwater in the study area is fresh and hard-very hard water, and mainly a Ca-Mg-Cl type. NO3– concentration was in the range of 7.0–74.0 mg/L with an average of 37.0 mg/L. Most of the samples showed concentration higher than the natural background concentration of NO3– (5.0–10.0 mg/L). The δ2H-H2O and δ18O-H2O values indicated that the groundwater is meteoric, and of Mediterranean origin, with a strong evaporation effect. The δ15N-NO3– values ranged between 6.0‰ and 11.3‰ with an average of 8.7‰, and the δ18O-NO3– values ranged between 1.6‰ and 5.9‰ with an average of 3.4‰. These values are in conformity with the stable isotope composition of nitrate derived the nitrification of wastewater/manure, and soil NH4. Nitrification and denitrification are the main transformation processes affecting nitrogen species. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the δ2H-H2O and δ18O-H2O values, and δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– values for the three aquifers (A1/2, A4, and B2/A7), indicating that the groundwater of these aquifers has the same origin, and a common source of pollution.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits438Downloads51 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202105.00009 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal variation in snow cover and its effects on grassland phenology on the Mongolian Plateau

SA Chula; MENG Fanhao; LUO Min; LI Chenhao; WANG Mulan; ADIYA Saruulzaya; BAO Yuhai
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Snow cover is an important water source for vegetation growth in arid and semi-arid areas, and grassland phenology provides valuable information on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. The Mongolian Plateau features both abundant snow cover resources and typical grassland ecosystems. In recent years, with the intensification of global climate change, the snow cover on the Mongolian Plateau has changed correspondingly, with resulting effects on vegetation growth. In this study, using MOD10A1 snow cover data and MOD13A1 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data combined with remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, we analyzed the spatiotemporal changes in snow cover and grassland phenology on the Mongolian Plateau from 2001 to 2018. The correlation analysis and grey relation analysis were used to determine the influence of snow cover parameters (snow cover fraction (SCF), snow cover duration (SCD), snow cover onset date (SCOD), and snow cover end date (SCED)) on different types of grassland vegetation. The results showed wide snow cover areas, an early start time, a late end time, and a long duration of snow cover over the northern Mongolian Plateau. Additionally, a late start, an early end, and a short duration were observed for grassland phenology, but the southern area showed the opposite trend. The SCF decreased at an annual rate of 0.33%. The SCD was shortened at an annual rate of 0.57 d. The SCOD and SCED in more than half of the study area advanced at annual rates of 5.33 and 5.74 DOY (day of year), respectively. For grassland phenology, the start of the growing season (SOS) advanced at an annual rate of 0.03 DOY, the end of the growing season (EOS) was delayed at an annual rate of 0.14 DOY, and the length of the growing season (LOS) was prolonged at an annual rate of 0.17 d. The SCF, SCD, and SCED in the snow season were significantly positively correlated with the SOS and negatively correlated with the EOS and LOS. The SCOD was significantly negatively correlated with the SOS and positively correlated with the EOS and LOS. The SCD and SCF can directly affect the SOS of grassland vegetation, while the EOS and LOS were obviously influenced by the SCOD and SCED. This study provides a scientific basis for exploring the response trends of alpine vegetation to global climate change.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits450Downloads47 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202105.00010 [pdf]

Characteristics and hazards of different snow avalanche types in a continental snow climate region in the Central Tianshan Mountains

HAO Jiansheng; Richard MIND'JE; LIU Yang; HUANG Farong; ZHOU Hao; LI Lanhai
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Snow avalanches are a common natural hazard in many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains. The avalanche hazard varies with snow avalanche type in different snow climate regions and at different times. The ability to understand the characteristics of avalanche activity and hazards of different snow avalanche types is a prerequisite for improving avalanche disaster management in the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains. In this study, we collected data related to avalanche, snowpack, and meteorology during four snow seasons (from 2015 to 2019), and analysed the characteristics and hazards of different types of avalanches. The snow climate of the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains was examined using a snow climate classification scheme, and the results showed that the mountain range has a continental snow climate. To quantify the hazards of different types of avalanches and describe their situation over time in the continental snow climate region, this study used the avalanche hazard degree to assess the hazards of four types of avalanches, i.e., full-depth dry snow avalanches, full-depth wet snow avalanches, surface-layer dry snow avalanches, and surface-layer wet snow avalanches. The results indicated that surface-layer dry snow avalanches were characterized by large sizes and high release frequencies, which made them having the highest avalanche hazard degree in the Central Tianshan Mountains with a continental snow climate. The overall avalanche hazard showed a single peak pattern over time during the snow season, and the greatest hazard occurred in the second half of February when the snowpack was deep and the temperature increased. This study can help the disaster and emergency management departments rationally arrange avalanche relief resources and develop avalanche prevention strategies.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits415Downloads61 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202104.00097 [pdf]

基于风险评估的新疆抗虫棉种植分析

王振霖; 吕昭智
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

基于新疆棉铃虫生物学特性和多年的种群动态趋势,并在收集棉花种植面积、产量、棉花市场价格及棉铃虫防治费用等相关数据的基础上,采用种群模拟模型(CLIMEX模型)并结合随机模拟方法(@RISK软件),评估不同场景下棉铃虫对新疆棉花产业造成的潜在经济损失。棉铃虫种群模拟表明:随着未来气候变化,新疆棉铃虫的周增长指数(GIw)会增加,棉铃虫越冬蛹羽化的日期明显提前,危害风险可能增加;2种模拟场景结果表明,抗虫棉能有效地降低棉铃虫造成的危害,减少单位面积防治成本。建议新疆相关部门未来可通过种植抗虫棉与害虫综合治理策略(IPM)的有机结合,来减少棉铃虫及次要害虫造成的损失。

submitted time 2021-04-23 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits572Downloads109 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202104.00098 [pdf]

覆膜滴灌棉田地膜残留量对棉花生长的影响

朱金儒
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

为了阐明覆膜滴灌棉田地膜残留对棉花生长的影响,结合绿洲覆膜滴灌棉田残膜累积特点,设计对应覆膜年限为5 a、10 a、15 a、20 a、25 a、30 a共6个不同残膜累积梯度,利用桶栽试验,分析了不同覆膜年限棉田中残膜累积对棉花生长和产量的影响。结果表明:残膜对棉花地上部株高和叶面积影响显著,随残膜量的增加株高和叶面积逐渐降低,当覆膜滴灌20 a时各时期株高和叶面积均显著减小。覆膜滴灌20 a时残膜量的增加开始显著降低棉花地下部根系指标,与CK相比,覆膜滴灌20 a的根长密度降低8.2%,根表面积密度降低10%,根体积降低7.2%,根系直径降低19.4%。残膜量与棉花干物质积累量和产量呈显著负相关,覆膜滴灌20 a后相比于CK,地上部干物质量降低20.3%,根部干物质量降低38.4%;棉花产量相比新疆近5 a地区平均单位面积产量降低10.96%。残膜量的增加对棉花的正常生长影响显著,当覆膜滴灌年限达到15~20 a时,棉花的生长与根系指标和产量显著降低。研究结果可为新疆滴灌棉田可持续发展提供理论依据。

submitted time 2021-04-23 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits566Downloads110 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202104.00099 [pdf]

大气污染物浓度变化特征及潜在源分析 ——以乌鲁木齐为例

刘子龙
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

对2017年乌鲁木齐市的气象参数及大气污染物的浓度进行了统计分析,探究了大气污染物的浓度变化特征,运用轨迹聚类分析、潜在源贡献函数(PSCF)和浓度权重轨迹法(CWT)研究了乌鲁木齐市PM2.5的传输路径和潜在源区。结果表明:乌鲁木齐市大气超标污染物主要为PM2.5和PM10,除O3外各污染物的浓度均是采暖期高于非采暖期,温度低、风速小、相对湿度大、乌鲁木齐市三面环山、逆温天气是造成采暖期颗粒物污染严重的重要原因;PM2.5区域传输主要来自西北方向,在采暖期受来自尼勒克县、沙湾县、呼图壁县、阜康市的短距离传输气团影响很大;PM2.5潜在源区主要集中于阜康市、和静县、沙湾县、昌吉市、沙湾县、吉木萨尔县、玛纳斯县,乌鲁木齐市PM2.5浓度同时受外来污染物输入和本地污染源排放的影响。

submitted time 2021-04-23 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits539Downloads99 Comment 0

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