摘要：为有力的推动猕猴桃产业化种苗生产及推广，快速高效的繁育猕猴桃新种质资源，同时为猕猴桃多倍体育种、转基因育种等新兴育种技术创造新种质资源奠定基础，该研究以‘东红’猕猴桃叶片、叶柄为外植体，探讨了不同植物生长调节剂种类及质量浓度组合对不定芽诱导过程中不定芽形成的影响，并研究了不同植物生长调节剂对‘东红’组培苗不定根诱导的影响。结果表明，‘东红’再生最佳外植体为叶柄。叶柄不定芽再生最佳培养基为MS + 0.5 μg·mL-1 6-BA + 0.2 μg·mL-1 NAA，不定芽平均再生率为91.2%，不定芽经过壮苗培养（MS + 0.2 μg·mL-1 6-BA + 0.05 μg·mL-1 NAA），取2～3 cm高幼苗进行生根诱导，不定根再生 率为93%，平均根数为6条。生根后，种苗移栽成活率达80%以上。初步建立了‘东红’叶柄高效再生体系，为猕猴桃快速的产业化种苗生产提供有力保证，也为后期猕猴桃育种研究提供理论依据。
摘要：为了获得活力高和再生能力强的甘蔗原生质体，本研究对甘蔗原生质体的冻存液浓度、冻存温度和冻存部位进行研究，结果发现：（1）不同的冻存液、不同的冻存温度和不同的取材部位原生质体冻存后复苏对甘蔗原生质体的活力影响有显著差异性，三个冻存液组合比较，在组合2（70%培养基+20%血清+10% DMSO），冻存30 d后复苏活力最强，高达72%；冻存90 d内复苏，-196℃液氮和-80℃冰箱冻存，甘蔗原生质体的活力差异不显著，活力均达75%以上，但90 d冻存后复苏，-196℃液氮冻存后复苏比-80 ℃冰箱冻存冻存后复苏原生质活力强；不同取材部位比较，幼叶冻存30 d后复苏所得原生质体活力较高达79.2%，茎尖冻存30 d后复苏所得原生质体活力仅为42.7%；（2）不同的冻存液和不同的冻存温度，细胞第一次启动分裂和形成细胞团的时间差异不显著，一般培养5~6 d，细胞壁基本形成完整，培养6 d后，细胞启动分裂，培养15 d后形成细胞团。不同的材料部位相比较，茎尖酶解所得原生质体再生能力最强，较幼叶酶解原生质体，形成细胞壁的时间早3 d，第一次分裂时间早2 d。研究结果将为甘蔗原生质体的超低温保存提供科学依据，为体细胞融合育种、遗传学和转基因研究提供材料和技术支撑。
摘要：该文报道了产鄂西和湘西北的双子叶植物省级分布新记录1个属和8个种。湖北分布新记录有龙珠(Tubocapsicum anomalum)、直梗高山唐松草（Thalictrum alpinum var. elatum）、虫莲(Sanguisorba filiformis)、腺地(Sanguisorba officinalis var. glandulosa)、平叶酸藤子(Embelia undulata)、广西地海椒(Physaliastrum chamaesarachoides)、东北薄荷(Mentha sachalinensis)、黄鼠狼花(Salvia tricuspis)，其中龙珠对应的龙珠属(Tubocapsicum)是湖北新记录属；湖南分布新记录有宝兴藨寄生(Gleadovia mupinense)。根据IUCN标准, 宝兴藨寄生属濒危（EN）物种。这些新记录的发现丰富了华中植物区系资料，在植物保护方面也有一定意义。
摘要：瑶族是一个拥有悠久历史和灿烂文化的民族，红瑶是其中一个分支，因妇女服饰上的花纹图案以大红色为主而得名，其生活习俗饱含民族特色，他们对植物尤其是药用植物的利用方式，与其他民族不同。该研究采用经典的民族植物学理论和方法，访问调查了广西龙胜红瑶传统药用植物种类，根据植物拉丁名、中文名、当地名、用途、用法及药用部位，对其进行民族植物学编目，并与《中国药典》作了比较。结果表明：共记录到药用植物95种，隶属于57科83属，其中蔷薇科、百合科种类最多，分别含有7种，显示龙胜红瑶传统药用植物资源的多样性；全株入药的植物种类41种，占总数的43.16 %，根入药的种类为23种，占总数的24.21 %；再次是叶入药的种类，为13种，占总数的13.68 %。药用植物的药用部位以全株、根及叶为主；治疗风湿类疾病的药物比重最大，达到23.47 %，推测与其生活的环境有关；与《中国药典》比较，发现71种植物未被其收录，另有17种虽被收录但主治功效不同，被收录且主治功效大致相同的药物仅有7种，这为新型中药研发提供借鉴。最后探讨了龙胜红瑶传统药用植物的药用价值、资源现状及文化传承的问题。该研究为保存红瑶的民族知识、继承民族传统奠定了科学基础。
摘要：西藏墨脱县位于东喜马拉雅和印缅交界地区，是雅鲁藏布江大峡谷国家级自然保护区的核心区域，是喜马拉雅生物多样性热点地区之一。通过对墨脱的科学考察，报道了中国兰科植物2新纪录种，西藏牛角兰（Ceratostylis radiata）和格当石豆兰（Bulbophyllum psychoon），并提供描述和图片。西藏牛角兰花为纯白色，花辐射对称，唇瓣3裂，茎长2～2.5 cm而明显区别于该属内其他种。格当石豆兰与齿瓣石豆兰（Bulbophyllum levinei）相似，但不同之处在于花瓣卵形，先端锐尖。凭证标本分别保存于西藏自治区高原生物研究所（XZ）和中国科学院植物研究所（PE）标本馆。2个新纪录种原分布均在印度、缅甸和越南等地区，在西藏的发现，说明了墨脱的植物区系和原分布地有一定的关系，同时也印证了墨脱属于亚热带地区，且2个种的分布海拔也超出了原分布地范围，开花的时间也相对推迟。新纪录种的发现对摸清本区植物种类和丰富中国西藏植物区系提供了更加详实的资料。
摘要：乌蒙山位于西部半湿润常绿阔叶林与东部湿润常绿阔叶林交界区，是云南省唯一分布峨眉栲、华木荷群系( Formation Castanopsis platyacantha, Schima sinensis)的地区，该群系处于中国西部常绿阔叶林向东部常绿阔叶林过渡的地带，群落更加复杂多样。乌蒙山峨眉栲、华木荷群落属于云南的中山湿性常绿阔叶林，但与东部湿润常绿阔叶林更为接近，其分布原因和群落特征都具有一定的研究意义。为了更深入的了解该群系的群落特征，同时找出其与东部湿润常绿阔叶林的联系，本文对该类型群落进行了数量分类研究，并分析了聚类归并的各群落类型的乔灌优势种特征（径级结构、高度结构和重要值）。同时，采用DCA，CCA和DCCA排序分析进行群落特征分异的环境解释。最后，与四川峨眉山同类群落进行特征对比。结果表明：（1）乌蒙山峨眉栲、华木荷群落可划分为6个类型：峨眉栲群落，峨眉栲、华木荷群落，峨眉栲、十齿花群落，水青冈（Fagus longipetiolata）、华木荷、峨眉栲群落，华木荷、硬斗石栎（Lithocarpus hancei）群落，十齿花（Dipentodon sinicus）、华木荷群落。（2）乌蒙山峨眉栲、华木荷群落中，峨眉栲大树比例较高，华木荷小苗数量巨大，灌木层常以竹类为优势种。（3）海拔、坡度和太阳年辐射值是影响群落分布的主导因素。（4）峨眉山同类群落中优势种种群呈稳定型或增长型，而乌蒙山峨眉栲、华木荷群落中，峨眉栲和水青冈呈现下降型的特点。
摘要：以紫茎泽兰（Ageratina adenophora）为供体，7种乡土植物即马尾松（Pinus massoniana）、杉木（Cunninghamia lanceolata ）、构树（Broussonetia papyifera）、板栗（Castanea mollissima）、花椒（Zanthoxylum bungeanu）、油茶（Camellia oleifera）、火棘（Pyracantha fortuneana）为受体，研究了紫茎泽兰叶的水浸提液对受试植物幼苗叶绿素含量和生长的化感影响。结果表明：（1）紫茎泽兰叶水提液在低浓度条件下对花椒、火棘的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和叶绿素总含量具有一定的促进作用，对其余5个物种的叶绿素影响不显著。在高浓度处理下杉木、板栗和构树叶绿素a、叶绿素b和叶绿素总含量的含量表现显著下降。火棘仅叶绿素b显著下降，马尾松均表现为增加，对油茶和花椒影响不显著；（2）对受体植物生长参数测定后发现，紫茎泽兰叶片水提液在高浓度( mg·mL-1)条件下对除板栗外的6种受体植物的所有生长参数均表现出显著的抑制作用，在低浓度下对火棘、花椒、杉木的地径和冠幅具有一定促进作用，对其余4个物种生长参数影响不显著。
摘要：Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities. This paper brings together different grass or grassland-based studies and considers them as part of a continuum of strategies that, when also combined with improvements in grassland production systems,will improve the overall efficiency of grasslands as an important natural resource and enable a greater area to be managed, replanted or conserved. These diversification options relate to those most likely to be available to farmers and land owners in the marginally economic or uneconomic grasslands of middle to northern Europe and specifically in the UK. Grasslands represent the predominant global land use and so these strategies are likely to be relevant to other areas although the grass species used may vary. The options covered include the use of biomass derived from the management of grasses in the urban and semi urban environment, semi-natural grassland systems as part of ecosystem management, pasture in addition to livestock production, and the planting and cropping of dedicated energy grasses. The adoption of such approaches would not only increase income from economically marginal grasslands, but would also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production and help fund conservation of these valuable grassland ecosystems and landscapes, which is increasingly becoming a challenge.
摘要：A key global 21st century challenge is to maximize agricultural production while minimizing use of resources such as land, water, and energy to meet rising demand for produce. To meet this challenge, while also adapting to climate change, agriculture will have to become more knowledge intensive and deploy smarter farming techniques. The intention of this study was to: (1)Highlight the opportunity for web-based knowledge exchange to increase farm productivity and thus contribute to achieving food and energy security, (2) Give some examples of online farming information services such as the “CROPROTECT” tool I am developing in the UK, the CABI “Plantwise” Knowledge Bank and the IRRI “Rice Doctor,” and (3) Consider lessons learnt so far.There are huge opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange through online systems for farmers and people who advise farmers. CROPROTECT is interacting with users to determine priorities in terms of the pests, weeds, and diseases covered and is providing key information to assist with their management. Knowledge is a critical input for farming systems. Crop protection in particular is becoming more difficult due to evolution of pest resistance and changes in legislation.Up to date information can be made rapidly available and shared online through websites and smartphone Apps. Agricultural extension no longer relies solely on physical meetings and printed documents. The capacity to share information via the Internet is tremendous with its potential to reach a wide audience in the farming community, to provide rapid updates and to interact more with the users. However, in an era of information deluge,accessing relevant information and ensuring reliability are essential considerations. There is also a need to bring science and farming communities together to turn information into relevant farming knowledge.
摘要：S.S.Z. performed the research with the help of L.S., X.D. and S.J.L. W.T. supervised the bioinformatics analysis. S.S.Z. and J.X.L. designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.
摘要：Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits.
摘要：Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is a key crop worldwide, and yet, its improvement and adaptation to emerging environmental threats is made difficult by the limited amount of allelic variation included in its elite pool. New allelic diversity may provide novel loci to international crop breeding through quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in unexplored material. Here, we report the extensive molecular and phenotypic characterization of hundreds of Ethiopian durum wheat landraces and several Ethiopian improved lines. We test 81 587 markers scoring 30 155 single nucleotide polymorphisms and use them to survey the diversity, structure, and genome-specific variation in the panel. We show the uniqueness of Ethiopian germplasm using a siding collection of Mediterranean durum wheat accessions. We phenotype the Ethiopian panel for ten agronomic traits in two highly diversified Ethiopian environments for two consecutive years and use this information to conduct a genome-wide association study. We identify several loci underpinning agronomic traits of interest, both confirming loci already reported and describing new promising genomic regions. These loci may be efficiently targeted with molecular markers already available to conduct marker-assisted selection in Ethiopian and international wheat. We show that Ethiopian durum wheat represents an important and mostly unexplored source of durum wheat diversity. The panel analysed in this study allows the accumulation of QTL mapping experiments, providing the initial step for a quantitative, methodical exploitation of untapped diversity in producing a better wheat.
摘要：Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15-year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (Bt11 × GA21, Bt11 × MIR604, MIR604 × GA21, Bt11 × MIR604 × GA21, Bt11 × MIR162 × GA21 and Bt11 × MIR604 × MIR162 × GA21), together with their component single events, are presented. These data provide evidence that no substantial changes in composition, protein expression or insert stability have occurred after combining the single events through conventional breeding. An alternative food and feed risk assessment strategy for stacked GM events is suggested based on a problem formulation approach that utilizes (i) the outcome of the single event risk assessments, and (ii) the potential for interactions in the stack, based on an understanding of the mode of action of the transgenes and their products.
摘要：CRISPR-Cas9 system is now widely used to edit a target genome in animals and plants. Cas9 protein derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) cleaves double-stranded DNA targeted by a chimeric single-guide RNA (sgRNA). For plant genome editing, Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation has been broadly used to express Cas9 proteins and sgRNAs under the control of CaMV 35S and U6/U3 promoter, respectively. We here developed a simple and high-throughput binary vector system to clone a 19−20 bp of sgRNA, which binds to the reverse complement of a target locus, in a large T-DNA binary vector containing an SpCas9 expressing cassette. Two-step cloning procedures: (1) annealing two target-specific oligonucleotides with overhangs specific to the AarI restriction enzyme site of the binary vector; and (2) ligating the annealed oligonucleotides into the two AarI sites of the vector, facilitate the high-throughput production of the positive clones. In addition, Cas9-coding sequence and U6/U3 promoter can be easily exchanged via the GatewayTM system and unique EcoRI/XhoI sites on the vector, respectively. We examined the mutation ratio and patterns when we transformed these constructs into Arabidopsis thaliana and a wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata. Our vector system will be useful to generate targeted large-scale knock-out lines of model as well as non-model plant.
摘要： Nuclear migration and positioning are crucial for the morphogenesis of plant cells. We addressed the potential role of nuclear positioning for polarity induction using an experimental system based on regenerating protoplasts, where the induction of a cell axis de novo can be followed by quantification of specific regeneration stages. Using overexpression of fluorescently tagged extranuclear (perinuclear actin basket, kinesins with a calponin homology domain (KCH)) as well as intranuclear (histone H2B) factors of nuclear positioning and time-lapse series of the early stages of regeneration, we found that nuclear position is no prerequisite for polarity formation. However, polarity formation and nuclear migration were both modulated in the transgenic lines, indicating that both phenomena depend on factors affecting cytoskeletal tensegrity and chromatin structure. We integrated these findings into a model where retrograde signals are required for polarity induction. These signals travel via the cytoskeleton from the nucleus toward targets at the plasma membrane.
摘要：Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins play primary roles in miRNA and siRNA pathways that are essential for numerous developmental and biological processes. However, the functional roles of the four ZmAGO1 genes have not yet been characterized in maize (Zea mays L.). In the present study, ZmAGO1a was identified from four putative ZmAGO1 genes for further characterization. Complementation of the Arabidopsis ago1-27 mutant with ZmAGO1a indicated that constitutive overexpression of ZmAGO1a could restore the smaller rosette, serrated leaves, later flowering and maturation, lower seed set, and darker green leaves at late stages of the mutant to the wild-type phenotype. The expression profiles of ZmAGO1a under five different abiotic stresses indicated that ZmAGO1a shares expression patterns similar to those of Argonaute genes in rice, Arabidopsis, and wheat. Further, variation in ZmAGO1a alleles among diverse maize germplasm that resulted in several amino acid changes revealed genetic diversity at this locus. The present data suggest that ZmAGO1a might be an important AGO1 ortholog in maize. The results presented provide further insight into the function of ZmAGO1a.
摘要：The evolution of long corolla tubes has been hypothesized to be driven by long-tongued pollinators. Corolla tubes in Pedicularis species can be longer than 10 cm which may function as flower stalks to increase visual attractiveness to pollinators because these species provide no nectar and are pollinated by bumblebees. The corolla tube length was manipulated (shorter or longer) in two Pedicularis species in field to examine whether longer tubes are more attractive to pollinators and produce more seeds than short tubes. Our results did not support the pollinator attraction hypothesis, leaving the evolution of long tubes in Pedicularis remains mysterious.
摘要：Plants have evolved a large number of tran APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study.
分类： 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物学研究、实验与植物演化、发展 提交时间： 2016-05-03
摘要：Production of β-ketoacyl-CoA, which is catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), is the first step in very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis. Here we identified 58 KCS genes from Gossypium hirsutum, 31 from G. arboreum and 33 from G. raimondii by searching the assembled cotton genomes. The gene family was divided into the plant-specific FAE1-type and the more general ELO-type. KCS transcripts were widely expressed and 32 of them showed distinct subgenome-specific expressions in one or more cotton tissues/organs studied. Six GhKCS genes rescued the lethality of elo2Δelo3Δ yeast double mutant, indicating that this gene family possesses diversified functions. Most KCS genes with GA-responsive elements (GAREs) in the promoters were significantly upregulated by gibberellin A3 (GA). Exogenous GA3 not only promoted fiber length, but also increased the thickness of cell walls significantly. GAREs present also in the promoters of several cellulose synthase (CesA) genes required for cell wall biosynthesis and they were all induced significantly by GA3. Because GA treatment resulted in longer cotton fibers with thicker cell walls and higher dry weight per unit cell length, we suggest that it may regulate fiber elongation upstream of the VLCFA-ethylene pathway and also in the downstream steps towards cell wall synthesis.