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1. chinaXiv:202107.00016 [pdf]

Damage Trust but Increase Cooperation? Putting Depression in Trust Game Lens

Zhou, Yiyong; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Jingyan
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Depression is theoretically associated with poor social functioning and social impairments, but empirical evidence for poor trust or cooperative behavior among depressed patients is scarce and severely under-researched. Based on a revised version of Trust Game, the present study aimed to clarify the equivocal relationships between depression, trust and altruistic cooperative behaviors, whilst taking into consideration of the potentially confounding effects of trait propensity to trust and locus of control. In the new version of Trust Game, each pairs of participant played the role of an investor and a trustee respectively. The investor player first receives an endowment of a given amount of money and decides how much he/she would like to invest. The invested endowment is then tripled and given to the trustee, played by the other participant who decides how much repayment he would like to return. This procedure is repeated for 10 rounds, trust behavior and altruistic cooperative behavior are then quantified as the averaged invested endowments and repayments, respectively. Results revealed that depressive symptoms negatively predicted invested endowments (i.e., the trust behavior) after the trait propensity to trust was controlled for, but a positive relationship between depressive symptoms and repayments (i.e., the altruistic cooperative behavior) was found, which was significantly moderated by the external locus of control. Specifically, in those with higher scores in externality, depressive symptoms actually resulted in a decrease (rather than an increase) in altruistic cooperation. This work, for the first time, clarified the relationships between depression and trust and altruistic cooperation by introducing trait factors such as propensity to trust and locus of controls, providing a new sight of exploring the effects of depressive symptoms on social functions.

submitted time 2021-07-22 Hits2144Downloads400 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201703.01054 [pdf]

Impaired spinal glucocorticoid receptor signaling contributes to the attenuating effect of depression on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with neuropathic pain

Wei, Xiao; Sun, Yuqi; Luo, Fei
Subjects: Biology >> Neurobiology

Although depression-induced altered pain perception has been described in several laboratory and clinical studies, its neurobiological mechanism in the central nervous system, particularly in the spinal dorsal horn remains unclear. In this study, we therefore aimed to clarify whether nociceptive sensitivity of neuropathic pain is altered in the olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model of depression and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is involved in the etio-pathologic mechanisms of both major depression and neuropathic pain, contributes to these processes in the spinal dorsal horn of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were attenuated in OB-SNL rats with decreased spinal GR expression and nuclear translocation, while NOB (non-olfactory bulbectomy)-SNL rats showed an increased spinal GR nuclear translocation. Decreased GR nuclear translocation with normal mechanical nociception and hypoalgesia of thermal nociception were observed in OB-Sham rats, too. Intrathecal injection of GR agonist dexamethasone (4 ?g / rat / day for 1 week) eliminated the attenuating effect of depression on the nociceptive hypersensitivity in OB-SNL rats and aggravated neuropathic pain in NOB-SNL rats, associating with the up-regulation of BDNF, TrkB and NR2B expression in the spinal dorsal horn. The present study shows that depression attenuates the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain and suggests that altered spinal GR-BDNF-TrkB signaling may be one of the reasons for depression-induced hypoalgesia.

submitted time 2017-07-24 Hits4567Downloads1995 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201705.00475 [pdf]

Synaptic plasticity and learning behaviours in flexible artificial synapse based on polymer/viologen system

Zhang, CC [Zhang, Chaochao][ 1,2,3 ]; Tai, YT [Tai, Yu-Tsung][ 4 ]; Shang, J [Shang, Jie][ 1,2 ]; Liu, G [Liu, Gang][ 1,2 ]; Wang, KL [Wang, Kun-Li][ 4 ]; Hsu, CW [Hsu, Chienwen][ 4 ]; Yi, XH [Yi, Xiaohui][ 1,2 ]; Yang, X [Yang, Xi][ 1,2 ]; Xue, WH [Xue, Wuhong][ 1,2 ]; Tan, HW [Tan, Hongwei][ 1,2
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

In this study, an artificial synapse with a sandwich structure of Ta/ethyl viologen diperchlorate [EV(ClO4)2]/triphenylamine-based polyimide (TPA-PI)/Pt is fabricated directly on a flexible PET substrate and exhibits distinctive history-dependent memristive behaviour, which meets the basic requirements for synapse emulation. Essential synaptic plasticity (including long-term plasticity and short-term plasticity) and some memory and learning behaviours of human beings (including the conversion from short-term memory to long-term memory and the ‘‘learning–forgetting–relearning’’) have been demonstrated in our device. More importantly, the device still exhibits the synaptic performance when the surface strain of the device reaches 0.64% (or, the bending radius reaches 10 mm). Moreover, the device was able to endure 100 bending cycles. Our findings strongly demonstrate that the organic artificial synapse is not only promising for constructing a neuromorphic information storage and processing system, but is also interesting for the realization of wearable neuromorphic computing systems

submitted time 2017-05-02 Hits1073Downloads673 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201703.01054 [pdf]

Impaired spinal glucocorticoid receptor signaling contributes to the attenuating effect of depression on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with neuropathic pain

Wei, Xiao; Sun, Yuqi; Luo, Fei
Subjects: Biology >> Neurobiology

Although depression-induced altered pain perception has been described in several laboratory and clinical studies, its neurobiological mechanism in the central nervous system, particularly in the spinal dorsal horn remains unclear. In this study, we therefore aimed to clarify whether nociceptive sensitivity of neuropathic pain is altered in the olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model of depression and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is involved in the etio-pathologic mechanisms of both major depression and neuropathic pain, contributes to these processes in the spinal dorsal horn of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were attenuated in OB-SNL rats with decreased spinal GR expression and nuclear translocation, while NOB (non-olfactory bulbectomy)-SNL rats showed an increased spinal GR nuclear translocation. Decreased GR nuclear translocation with normal mechanical nociception and hypoalgesia of thermal nociception were observed in OB-Sham rats, too. Intrathecal injection of GR agonist dexamethasone (4 ?g / rat / day for 1 week) eliminated the attenuating effect of depression on the nociceptive hypersensitivity in OB-SNL rats and aggravated neuropathic pain in NOB-SNL rats, associating with the up-regulation of BDNF, TrkB and NR2B expression in the spinal dorsal horn. The present study shows that depression attenuates the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain and suggests that altered spinal GR-BDNF-TrkB signaling may be one of the reasons for depression-induced hypoalgesia.

submitted time 2017-03-31 Hits4276Downloads1703 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01379 [pdf]

A spontaneous depressive pattern in adult female rhesus macaques

Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian; Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Chu, Xunxun; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Shangchuan; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Xintian; Qin, Dongdong; Chen, Lin; Lu, Longbao; Hu, Xintian; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Lichuan
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Non-human primates offer unique opportunities to study the development of depression rooted in behavioral and physiological abnormalities. This study observed adult female rhesus macaques within social hierarchies and aimed to characterize the physiological and brain abnormalities accompanying depressive-like behavior. The behaviors of 31 female rhesus macaques from 14 different breeding groups were video recorded, and the footage was analyzed using the focal animal technique. There were 13 monkeys who never displayed huddling behavior (non-huddlers). The remaining 18 monkeys were divided into two groups according the mean time spent in the huddle posture. Four monkeys were designated as high huddlers, whereas the other 14 monkeys were low huddlers. An inverse relationship was discovered between social rank and depression. High huddlers spent more time engaging in physical contact and in close proximity to other monkeys, as well as less time spontaneously and reactively locomoting, than low huddlers and/or non-huddlers. Cortisol levels measured from the hair were elevated significantly in high huddlers compared with low huddlers and non-huddlers, and the measured cortisol levels were specifically higher in high huddlers than subordinate or dominant control monkeys. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant and widespread decreases in high huddlers compared with non-huddlers.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1741Downloads835 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01373 [pdf]

NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides

Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Wang, Jian; Xu, Tao; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Xue, Zhidong; Jang, Richard; Xu, Tao
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, iso-electric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1874Downloads1092 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01186 [pdf]

Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: Moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene

Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Fan, Xiaona; Hu, Xintian; Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Fan, Xiaona; Hu, Xintian; Lue, Longbao; Hu, Xintian; Rizak, Joshua; Qin, Dongdong; Chen, Lin; Yang, Lichuan; Yang, Lichuan
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1504Downloads683 Comment 0

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