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  • The priming potential of environmentally weathered pyrogenic carbon during land‐use transition to biomass crop production

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    摘要:

    Since land-use change (LUC) to lignocellulosic biomass crops often causes a loss of soil organic carbon (SOC), at least in the short term, this study investigated the potential for pyrogenic carbon (PyC) to ameliorate this effect. Although negative priming has been observed in many studies, most of these are long-term incubation experiments which do not account for the interactions between environmentally weathered PyC and native SOC. Here, the aim was to assess the impact of environmentally weathered PyC on native SOC mineralization at different time points in LUC from arable crops to short rotation coppice (SRC) willow. At eight SRC willow plantations in England, with ages of 3–22 years, soil amended 18–22 months previously with PyC was compared with unamended control soil. Cumulative CO2 flux was measured weekly from incubated soil at 0–5 cm depth, and soil-surface CO2 flux was also measured in the field. For the incubated soil, cumulative CO2 flux was significantly higher from soil containing weathered PyC than the control soil for seven of the eight sites. Across all sites, the mean cumulative CO2 flux was 21% higher from soil incubated with weathered PyC than the control soil. These results indicate the potential for positive priming in the surface 5 cm of soil independent of changes in soil properties following LUC to SRC willow production. However, no net effect on CO2 flux was observed in the field, suggesting this increase in CO2 is offset by a contrasting PyC-induced effect at a different soil depth or that different effects were observed under laboratory and field conditions. Although the mechanisms for these contrasting effects remain unclear, results presented here suggest that PyC does not reduce LUC-induced SOC losses through negative priming, at least for this PyC type and application rate.

  • Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil organic carbon under Miscanthus and short rotation coppice‐willow crops in Britain

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    摘要:

    In this paper, we focus on the impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) of two dedicated energy crops: perennial grass Miscanthus x Giganteus (Miscanthus) and short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow. The amount of SOC sequestered in the soil is a function of site-specific factors including soil texture, management practices, initial SOC levels and climate; for these reasons, both losses and gains in SOC were observed in previous Miscanthus and SRC-willow studies. The ECOSSE model was developed to simulate soil C dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in mineral and organic soils. The performance of ECOSSE has already been tested at site level to simulate the impacts of land-use change to short rotation forestry (SRF) on SOC. However, it has not been extensively evaluated under other bioenergy plantations, such as Miscanthus and SRC-willow. Twenty-nine locations in the United Kingdom, comprising 19 paired transitions to SRC-willow and 20 paired transitions to Miscanthus, were selected to evaluate the performance of ECOSSE in predicting SOC and SOC change from conventional systems (arable and grassland) to these selected bioenergy crops. The results of the present work revealed a strong correlation between modelled and measured SOC and SOC change after transition to Miscanthus and SRC-willow plantations, at two soil depths (0–30 and 0–100 cm), as well as the absence of significant bias in the model. Moreover, model error was within (i.e. not significantly larger than) the measurement error. The high degrees of association and coincidence with measured SOC under Miscanthus and SRC-willow plantations in the United Kingdom, provide confidence in using this process-based model for quantitatively predicting the impacts of future land use on SOC, at site level as well as at national level.

  • Dedicated biomass crops can enhance biodiversity in the arable landscape

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    摘要:

    Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping. The abundance and community compositions of biodiversity indicators in fields of break and cereal crops changed when planted with the dedicated biomass crops, miscanthus and short rotation coppiced (SRC) willow. Weed biomass was consistently greater in the two dedicated biomass crops than in cereals, and invertebrate abundance was similarly consistently higher than in break crops. Using canonical variates analysis, we identified distinct plant and invertebrate taxa and trait-based communities in miscanthus and SRC willows, whereas break and cereal crops tended to form a single, composite community. Seedbanks were shown to reflect the longer term effects of crop management. Our study suggests that miscanthus and SRC willows, and the management associated with perennial cropping, would support significant amounts of biodiversity when compared with annual arable crops. We recommend the strategic planting of these perennial, dedicated biomass crops in arable farmland to increase landscape heterogeneity and enhance ecosystem function, and simultaneously work towards striking a balance between energy and food security.

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  • Initial soil C and land‐use history determine soil C sequestration under perennial bioenergy crops

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    摘要:

    In the UK and other temperate regions, short rotation coppice (SRC) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) are two of the leading ‘second-generation’ bioenergy crops. Grown specifically as a low-carbon (C) fossil fuel replacement, calculations of the climate mitigation provided by these bioenergy crops rely on accurate data. There are concerns that uncertainty about impacts on soil C stocks of transitions from current agricultural land use to these bioenergy crops could lead to either an under- or overestimate of their climate mitigation potential. Here, for locations across mainland Great Britain (GB), a paired-site approach and a combination of 30-cm- and 1-m-deep soil sampling were used to quantify impacts of bioenergy land-use transitions on soil C stocks in 41 commercial land-use transitions; 12 arable to SRC, 9 grasslands to SRC, 11 arable to Miscanthus and 9 grasslands to Miscanthus. Mean soil C stocks were lower under both bioenergy crops than under the grassland controls but only significant at 0–30 cm. Mean soil C stocks at 0–30 cm were 33.55 ± 7.52 Mg C ha−1 and 26.83 ± 8.08 Mg C ha−1 lower under SRC (P = 0.004) and Miscanthus plantations (P = 0.001), respectively. Differences between bioenergy crops and arable controls were not significant in either the 30-cm or 1-m soil cores and smaller than for transitions from grassland. No correlation was detected between change in soil C stock and bioenergy crop age (time since establishment) or soil texture. Change in soil C stock was, however, negatively correlated with the soil C stock in the original land use. We suggest, therefore, that selection of sites for bioenergy crop establishment with lower soil C stocks, most often under arable land use, is the most likely to result in increased soil C stocks.

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    Soil fungal and bacterial responses to conversion of open land to short‐rotation woody biomass crops

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    Chao Xue Christopher Ryan Penton Bangzhou Zhang Mengxin Zhao David E. Rothstein David J. Mladenoff Jodi A. Forrester Qirong Shen James M. Tiedje

    摘要:

    Short-rotation woody biomass crops (SRWCs) have been proposed as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production in the northeastern US that leads to the conversion of current open land to woody plantations, potentially altering the soil microbial community structures and hence functions. We used pyrosequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA genes in soil to assess bacterial and fungal populations when ‘marginal’ grasslands were converted into willow (Salix spp.) and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantations at two sites with similar soils and climate history in northern Michigan (Escanaba; ES) and Wisconsin (Rhinelander; RH). In only three growing seasons, the conversion significantly altered both the bacterial and fungal communities, which were most influenced by site and then vegetation. The fungal community showed greater change than the bacterial community in response to land conversion at both sites with substantial enrichment of putative pathogenic, ectomycorrhizal, and endophytic fungi associated with poplar and willow. Conversely, the bacterial community structures shifted, but to a lesser degree, with the new communities dissimilar at the two sites and most correlated with soil nutrient status. The bacterial phylum Nitrospirae increased after conversion and was negatively correlated to total soil nitrogen, but positively correlated to soil nitrate, and may be responsible for nitrate accumulation and the increased N2O emissions previously reported following conversion at these sites. The legacy effect of a much longer grassland history and a second dry summer at the ES site may have influenced the grassland (control) microbial community to remain stable while it varied at the RH site.

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    Impacts of willow and miscanthus bioenergy buffers on biogeochemical N removal processes along the soil–groundwater continuum

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    Andrea Ferrarini Flavio Fornasier Paolo Serra Federico Ferrari Marco Trevisan Stefano Amaducci

    摘要:

    In this article, the belowground and aboveground biomass production in bioenergy buffers and biogeochemical N removal processes along the soil–groundwater continuum was assessed. In a sandy loam soil with shallow groundwater, bioenergy buffers of miscanthus and willow (5 and 10 m wide) were planted along a ditch of an agricultural field (AF) located in the Po valley (Italy). Mineral N forms and dissolved organic C (DOC) were monitored monthly over an 18-month period in groundwater before and after the bioenergy buffers. Soil samples were measured for inorganic N, DOC, microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and potential nitrate reductase activity (NRA). The results indicated that bioenergy buffers are able to efficiently remove from groundwater the incoming NO3-N (62% – 5 m and 80% – 10 m). NO3-N removal rate was higher when nitrate input from AF increased due to N fertilization. Willow performed better than miscanthus in terms of biomass production (17 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1), fine root biomass (5.3 Mg ha−1) and N removal via harvesting (73 kg N ha−1). The negative nonlinear relationship found between NO3-N and DOC along the soil–groundwater continuum from AF to bioenergy buffers indicates that DOC:NO3-N ratio is an important controlling factor for promoting denitrification in bioenergy buffers. Bioenergy buffers promoted soil microbial functioning as they stimulated plant–microbial linkages by increasing the easily available C sources for microorganisms (as DOC). First, willow and miscanthus promoted high rates of biological removal of nitrate (NRA) along the soil profile. Second, rhizosphere processes activated the soil microbial community leading to significant increases in MBC and microbial N immobilization. Herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops have been confirmed as providing good environmental performances when cultivated as bioenergy buffers by mitigating the disservices of agricultural activities such as groundwater N pollution.

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    Spatial yield estimates of fast‐growing willow plantations for energy based on climatic variables in northern Europe

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    Blas Mola-Yudego Johannes Rahlf Rasmus Astrup Ioannis Dimitriou

    摘要:

    Spatially accurate and reliable estimates from fast-growing plantations are a key factor for planning energy supply. This study aimed to estimate the yield of biomass from short rotation willow plantations in northern Europe. The data were based on harvesting records from 1790 commercial plantations in Sweden, grouped into three ad hoc categories: low, middle and high performance. The predictors included climatic variables, allowing the spatial extrapolation to nearby countries. The modeling and spatialization of the estimates used boosted regression trees, a method based on machine learning. The average RMSE for the final models selected was 0.33, 0.39 and 1.91 (corresponding to R= 0.77, 0.88 and 0.45), for the low, medium and high performance categories, respectively. The models were then applied to obtain 1×1 km yield estimates in the rest of Sweden, as well as for Norway, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. The results demonstrated a large regional variation. For the first rotation under high performance conditions, the country averages were as follows: >7 odt ha−1 yr−1 in the Baltic coast of Germany, >6 odt ha−1 yr−1 in Denmark, >5 odt ha−1 yr−1 in the Baltic coast of Poland and between 4–5 odt ha−1 yr−1 in the rest. The results of this approach indicate that they can provide faster and more accurate predictions than previous modeling approaches and can offer interesting possibilities in the field of yield modeling.

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    Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life‐cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物生态学和植物地理学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    Zhangcai Qin Jennifer B. Dunn Hoyoung Kwon Steffen Mueller Michelle M. Wander

    摘要:

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels' attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the USA and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grassland, and forest) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow) at the county level in the USA. Results show that in most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. SOC change results were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ−1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn-, −0.7 for corn stover-, −3.4 to 12.9 for switchgrass-, and −20.1 to −6.2 for Miscanthus ethanol; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending the soil depth from 30 to 100 cm affected spatially explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however, the influence on LUC GHG emission estimates was less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ−1, 100 cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18–26 for switchgrass ethanol, and −7 to −0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol. The LUC GHG emissions associated with poplar- and willow-derived ethanol may be higher than that for switchgrass ethanol due to lower biomass yield.

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