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1. chinaXiv:202102.00028 [pdf]

Taurine is found in rumen fluid, plasma and urine of beef cattle fed a ration containing sodium sulfate

Zhao, Yuchao ; Zhao, Guangyong
Subjects: Agriculture, Forestry,Livestock & Aquatic Products Science >> Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Objective: The objectives of the experiment were to study the effects of dietary supplementation with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on taurine concentrations of plasma, urine and rumen fluid in steers. Methods: Six Simmental steers (bodyweight 449 ± 19 kg) were used as experimental animals. Three levels of Na2SO4, i.e. 0, 20 and 40 g/d, were added in a basal ration as experimental treatments. The animals and the dietary treatments were randomly allocated in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period included 15 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. Rumen fluid, blood and urine were sampled from the steers during each sampling period. Results: Dietary addition with Na2SO4 at 40 g/d increased plasma taurine concentration (P < 0.05) and tended to increase the plasma taurine concentration with increasing Na2SO4 level in a linear manner (P = 0.052). A linear positive regression relationship was found between plasma taurine concentration (?g/mL) and sulfur intake (g/d) (R2 = 0.18, P = 0.046). Taurine was found in rumen fluid and urine. No differences were found in ruminal taurine concentrations or urinary taurine excretions among treatments (P > 0.05). Limitations: We infer that the taurine in rumen fluid should have come from the blood through saliva secretion or/and the rumen microbial synthesis. However, no reports are available on the hypothesis. Further research is needed to investigate the possible origins of ruminal taurine as well as the impacts of taurine on rumen microecosystem and fermentation. Conclusions: Taurine has been found in rumen fluid for the first time in the experiment. Dietary addition with Na2SO4 increased plasma taurine concentrations whereas it did not affect urinary taurine excretions in steers.

submitted time 2021-02-08 Hits1256Downloads633 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201709.00001 [pdf]

Off-center moments set of Vlasov-Maxwell system

linhai
Subjects: Physics >> Physics of Gases, Plasmas, and Electric Discharges

We propose a more effective fluid description on Vlasov-Maxwell (V-M) system. It is via an open set of off-center moments, which obey an open set of motion equations.This new description is of more advantage to give exact macroscopic information of the V-M system than the well-known moments-description. The new description implies that obtaining exact solutions of all moments is not necessary condition of obtaining those of self-consistent fields. 我们对Vlasov-Maxwell系统提出一更有效的流体描述。该描述通过一开放的偏心矩系列。该偏心矩系列服从一开放的流体方程组。与著名的矩描述相比,该新描述更具有优势去获得准确的V-M系统的宏观信息。该新描述意味着所有矩的准确解不是自洽场准确解的必要条件。

submitted time 2017-09-03 Hits2398Downloads1325 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201701.00223 [pdf]

A Satellite-boren Miniature Ion Mass Spectrometer for Space Plasma

KONG Linggao; ZHANG AiBing; ZHENG XiangZhi; AN YaYa; WANG WenJing; TIAN Zhen; GUAN YiBing; LIU Chao; DING JianJing; SUN YueQiang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The miniature design technology is an important trend in space exploration. Mass spectrometer is used extensively in the space environment detection. The miniature ion mass spectrometer utilizes a 127?cylindrical electrostatic analyzer accompanied with a Time of Flight(TOF) unit based on ultrathin carbon foil to measure the energy spectra and composition of space plasma. The Time of Flight technique has been used broadly in space plasma measurement. A new type of miniature method for the ion mass spectrometer is introduced. The total mass of the instrument is 1.8 kg and the total power consumption is 2.0 W. The calibration results show that the energy measurement range is 8.71~43550eV, the energy resolution is 1.86% and the ion mass from 1 amu(1 amu =1.67 x 10~(-27) kg) to 58 amu can be resolved by the miniature mass spectrometer. The miniature ion mass spectrometer also has a potential to be increased in the field of view by an electrostatic deflecting system to extend its application in space plasma detection. The miniature ion mass spectrometer has been selected for pre-study of Chinese Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science.

submitted time 2017-01-22 Hits1216Downloads648 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201612.00445 [pdf]

Structure function of holographic quark-gluon plasma: Sakai-Sugimoto model versus its non-critical version

Bu,YY; Yang,JM
Subjects:

Motivated by recent studies of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the N=4N=4\mathcal{N}=4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma, holographically dual to AdS5×S5AdS5×S5AdS_5\times S^5 black hole, we in this note use the spacelike flavor current to probe the inter

submitted time 2016-12-28 Hits918Downloads482 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201609.00076 [pdf]

Chiral Relaxation Time at the Chiral Crossover of Quantum Chromodynamics

M. Ruggieri; G. X. Peng; M. Chernodub
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We study microscopic processes responsible for chirality flips in the thermal bath of Quantum Chromodynamics at finite temperature and zero baryon chemical potential. We focus on the temperature range where the crossover from chirally broken phase to quark-gluon plasma takes place, namely?T?(150,200)?MeV. The processes we consider are quark-quark scatterings mediated by collective excitations with the quantum number of pions and?σ-meson, hence we refer to these processes simply as \sugg{to} one-pion (one-σ) exchange\sugg{s}. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to compute equilibrium properties of the thermal bath, as well as the relevant scattering kernel to be used in the collision integral to estimate the chiral relaxation time?τ. We find?τ?0.1÷1?fm/c around the chiral crossover.

submitted time 2016-09-06 Hits831Downloads462 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01608 [pdf]

Parallel-dominant and perpendicular-dominant components of the fast bulk flow: Comparing with the PSBL beams

Zhang, L. Q.; Dai, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Reme, H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Wei, X. H.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Utilizing multipoint observations by the Cluster satellites, we investigated the ion distributions of the fast bulk flows (FBFs) in the plasma sheet. Simultaneous observation by C1 and C3 revealed that parallel-dominant and perpendicular-dominant components of the flows coexist and correspond to B-x-dominant and B-z-dominant magnetic field regions within the FBFs, respectively. In both cases, the ions distributions are characterized by a single-beam/crescent shape. In particular, no reflected ions are found within the FBFs. Statistical analysis showed that within the FBFs, the strength of the B-x component is typically less than 5 nT for B-z-dominant regions and above 10 nT for B-x-dominant regions. To distinguish between the parallel-dominant component of the FBFs and the field-aligned beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL), we further statistically analyzed the tailward parallel flows (TPF) with positive B-z in the plasma sheet. The results indicated that the FBFs tend to have higher velocity, weaker B, and higher magnetic tilt angle (theta(MTA)) than the TPFs/PSBL beams. Statistically, in the region of B > 30 nT (theta(MTA) > 10 degrees), only PSBL beams can be observed, while in the region of B < 10 nT (theta(MTA) > 30 degrees), the FBFs are dominant. In the intermediate region (10 degrees < theta(MTA) < 30 degrees) of the plasma sheet, the FBFs and the PSBL beams cooccur. These Cluster observations suggest that the X line can produce both perpendicular flow in central plasma sheet and parallel flow in the PSBL. In addition, the parallel-dominant component of the FBFs could be an important origin for the PSBL beams.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1110Downloads686 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01511 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal Detection and Analysis of Exocytosis Reveal Fusion 'Hotspots'' Organized by the Cytoskeleton in Endocrine Cells

Yuan, Tianyi; Chen, Liangyi; Yuan, Tianyi; Chen, Liangyi; Lu, Jingze; Zhang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Yongdeng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope has often been used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle exocytosis. However, the spatial occurrence of the fusion events within a single cell is not frequently explored due to the lack of sensitive and accurate computer-assisted programs to analyze large image data sets. Here, we have developed an image analysis platform for the nonbiased identification of different types of vesicle fusion events with high accuracy in different cell types. By performing spatiotemporal analysis of stimulus-evoked exocytosis in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, we statistically prove that individual vesicle fusion events are clustered at hotspots. This spatial pattern disappears upon the disruption of either the actin or the microtubule network; this disruption also severely inhibits evoked exocytosis. By demonstrating that newcomer vesicles are delivered from the cell interior to the surface membrane for exocytosis, we highlight a previously unappreciated mechanism in which the cytoskeleton-dependent transportation of secretory vesicles organizes exocytosis hotspots in endocrine cells.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1574Downloads900 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01444 [pdf]

Extended-resolution structured illumination imaging of endocytic and cytoskeletal dynamics

Li, Dong; Shao, Lin; Chen, Bi-Chang; Betzig, Eric; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Mingshu; Xu, Pingyong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Mingshu; Xu, Pingyong; Zhang, Xi; Moses, Brian; Milkie, Daniel E.; Beach, Jordan R.; Hammer, John A., III; Baird, Michelle A.; Pasham, Mithun; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Pasham, Mithun; Kirchhausen, Tomas
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is distinct among nanoscale imaging tools in its ability to image protein dynamics in living cells. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) stands out in this regard because of its high speed and low illumination intensities, but typically offers only a twofold resolution gain. We extended the resolution of live-cell SIM through two approaches: ultrahigh numerical aperture SIM at 84-nanometer lateral resolution for more than 100 multicolor frames, and nonlinear SIM with patterned activation at 45- to 62-nanometer resolution for approximately 20 to 40 frames. We applied these approaches to image dynamics near the plasma membrane of spatially resolved assemblies of clathrin and caveolin, Rab5a in early endosomes, and a-actinin, often in relationship to cortical actin. In addition, we examined mitochondria, actin, and the Golgi apparatus dynamics in three dimensions.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1688Downloads1077 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01438 [pdf]

Quantitative proteomics using SILAC: Principles, applications, and developments

Chen, Xiulan; Wei, Shasha; Ji, Yanlong; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan; Chen, Xiulan; Wei, Shasha; Ji, Yanlong; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan; Ji, Yanlong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

SILAC is based on direct addition of selected stable isotope amino acids into the cell culture medium, allowing superior quantitative analysis of the cellular proteome compared to other labeling methods. The great advantages of SILAC lie in its straight-forward implementation, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility over chemical labeling or label-free quantification strategies, favoring its adoption for proteomic research. SILAC has been widely applied to characterize the proteomic changes between different biological samples, to investigate dynamic changes of protein PTMs, to distinguish specific interacting proteins in interaction proteomic analysis, and to analyze protein turnover in the proteome-wide scale. The present review summarizes the principles of SILAC technology, its applications in biological research, and the present state of this technology.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2499Downloads1612 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01293 [pdf]

Identification of Glycoproteins Containing Specific Glycans Using a Lectin-Chemical Method

Li, Yan; Shah, Punit; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhang, Hui; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Li, Yan; Lo, Qianqian; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Glycosylation is one of the most common protein modifications. Each glycoprotein can be glycosylated at multiple glycosites, and each glycosites can be modified by different glycans. Due to this heterogeneity of glycosylation, it has proven difficult to study the structure-function relationship of specific glycans and their affected glycoproteins. Here, we report a novel method for rapid and quantitative identification of glycoproteins containing specific glycans. Lectin affinity isolations are followed by chemical immobilization of the captured glycopeptides, allowing the identification of glycoproteins containing specific glycans by subsequent mass spectrometry. The application of the method should be useful to facilitate our understanding of how changes in glycan associate with diseases, and to discover novel glycoproteins with certain glycans that could serve as biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1454Downloads827 Comment 0

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