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1. chinaXiv:201605.01419 [pdf]

Alteration of brain regional homogeneity of monkeys with spinal cord injury: A longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Rao, Jia-Sheng; Zhao, Can; Liu, Zuxiang; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Manxiu; Liu, Zuxiang; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Purpose: To investigate the longitudinal brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in nonhuman primate after spinal cord injury (SCI) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Three adult female rhesus monkeys underwent unilateral thoracic cord injury. A resting-state fMRI examination was performed in the healthy stage and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the injury. The ReHo value of each voxel in the monkey brain was calculated and compared between pre- and post-SCI monkeys with paired t test. The regions of interest (ROIs) in the significantly changed ReHo regions were set. The correlations between the ReHo change and the time after injury were also determined. Results: Compared with those in healthy period, the ReHo values of the left premotor cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in post-SCI rhesus monkeys significantly increased in 4-week follow-up examinations. The ReHo values of posterior cingulate cortex, left precuneus, left temporal parietooccipital area, and bilateral superior parietal lobules decreased at 8-week follow-up examinations. In 12-week follow-up examinations, the ReHo values of the left postcentral gyrus, right caudate nucleus, and superior temporal gyrus increased. Correlation analysis showed positive correlations between left ACC and the postoperative time. Conclusion: SCI can change the regional synchronism of brain activity in sensorimotor system and the default mode network. These findings may help us to understand the potential pathophysiological changes in the central nervous system after SCI. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits498Downloads299 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01248 [pdf]

The Metabolic Regulator Histone Deacetylase 9 Contributes to Glucose Homeostasis Abnormality Induced by Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Chen, Jizheng; Guo, Min; Tang, Hong; Chen, Xinwen; Wang, Ning; Dong, Mei; Li, Zhong; Han, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yang; Zhuo, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chao; Chi, Xiumei; Pan, Yu; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Junqi; Yang, Dongliang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Class Ila histone deacetylases (HDACs), such as HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7, provide critical mechanisms for regulating glucose homeostasis. Here we report that HDAC9, another class Ila HDAC, regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis via deacetylation of a Forkhead box 0 (FoxO) family transcription factor, FoxO1, together with HDAC3. Specifically, HDAC9 expression can be strongly induced upon hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV-induced HDAC9 upregulation enhances gluconeogenesis by promoting the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, indicating a major role for HDAC9 in the development of HCV-associated exaggerated gluconeogenic responses. Moreover, HDAC9 expression levels and gluconeogenic activities were elevated in livers from HCV-infected patients and persistent HCV-infected mice, emphasizing the clinical relevance of these results. Our results suggest HDAC9 is involved in glucose metabolism, HCV-induced abnormal glucose homeostasis, and type 2 diabetes.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits535Downloads310 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.00772 [pdf]

Modeling xeroderma pigmentosum associated neurological pathologies with patients-derived iPSCs

Fu, Lina; Xu, Xiuling; Ren, Ruotong; Zhang, Weiqi; Yang, Jiping; Ren, Xiaoqing; Wang, Si; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Guang-Hui; Ren, Ruotong; Zhang, Weiqi; Liu, Guang-Hui; Qu, Jing; Wu, Jun; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Wu, Jun; Sun, Liang; Yang, Ze; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a group of genetic disorders caused by mutations of XP-associated genes, resulting in impairment of DNA repair. XP patients frequently exhibit neurological degeneration, but the underlying mechanism is unknown, in part due to lack of proper disease models. Here, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) harboring mutations in five different XP genes including XPA, XPB, XPC, XPG, and XPV. These iPSCs were further differentiated to neural cells, and their susceptibility to DNA damage stress was investigated. Mutation of XPA in either neural stem cells (NSCs) or neurons resulted in severe DNA damage repair defects, and these neural cells with mutant XPA were hyper-sensitive to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Thus, XP-mutant neural cells represent valuable tools to clarify the molecular mechanisms of neurological abnormalities in the XP patients.

submitted time 2016-05-05 Hits782Downloads439 Comment 0

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