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1. chinaXiv:202009.00050 [pdf]

Late Miocene micromammalian assemblage of Tuchengzi and its biochronological position in Neogene faunal sequence in central Nei Mongol, China

ZHANG Li-Min; DONG Wei; Ni Xi-Jun; LI Qiang
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Neogene strata rich in fossil mammals are well exposed in central Nei Mongol, China. Over a dozen mammalian faunas in chronological succession from Early Miocene to Early Pliocene were discerned in this region, and they built a fundamental part of the Neogene land mammal biochronological system in northern China. Tuchengzi was first recognized for producing abundant mammalian fossils during the Sino-Soviet Paleontological Expedition (SSPE) initiated in 1959. However, all unearthed fossils from the SSPE were either large- or middle-sized mammals, and small mammal fossils in the Tuchengzi Fauna were deficient for a long time. The composition and biochronological position of the Tuchengzi Fauna in the Neogene mammalian biochronological system in northern China was not particularly clear. The new fossils here reported are represented by 6 taxa of small mammals. Based on the co-occurrence of Lophocricetus grabaui, Sinocricetus zdanskyi, Prosiphneus licenti, Hansdebruijnia pusilla, and Moschus grandaevus, the age of the Tuchengzi Fauna is constrained to late Late Miocene or Baodean Chinese Land Mammal Age, slighter younger than the Baogeda Ula Fauna and older than the Ertemte Fauna. Judging from the fossil composition, the Tuchengzi Fauna possibly inhabited a forest-steppe mixed habitat during the late Late Miocene.

submitted time 2020-09-15 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits927Downloads155 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202002.00033 [pdf]

Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus using the whole genomic data

Yu, Wen-Bin; Tang, Guang-Da; Zhang, Li; Corlett, Richard T.
Subjects: Biology >> Virology
Subjects: Biology >> Genetics

Background. The outbreak of COVID-19 started in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, Central China. Up to February 18, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 70,000 people in China, and another 25 countries across five continents. In this study, we used 93 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the GISAID EpiFluTM database to decode the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the recent two months. Methods. Alignment of coding-regions was conducted haplotype analyses using DnaSP. Substitution sites were analyzed in codon. Evolutionary analysis of haplotypes used NETWORK. Population size changes were estimated using both DnaSP and Arlequin. Expansion date of population size was calculated based on the expansion parameter tau (τ) using the formula t=τ/2u. Findings. Eight coding-regions have 120 substitution sites, including 79 non-synonymous and 40 synonymous substitutions. Forty-two non-synonymous substitutions changed the biochemical property of amino acids. No evident combination was found. Fifty-eight haplotypes were classified as five groups, and 31 haplotypes were found in samples from both China and other countries, respectively. The rooted network suggested H13 and H35 to be ancestral haplotypes, and H1 (and its descendent haplotypes including all samples from the Hua Nan market) was derived H3 haplotype. Population size of SARS-CoV-2 were estimated to have a recent expansion on 6 January 2020, and an early expansion on 8 December 2019. Interpretation. Genomic variations of SARS-CoV-2 are still low in comparisons with published genomes of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Phyloepidemiologic analyses indicated the SARS-CoV-2 source at the Hua Nan market should be imported from other places. The crowded market boosted SARS-CoV-2 rapid circulations in the market and spread it to the whole city in early December 2019. Furthermore, phyloepidemiologic approaches have recovered specific direction of human-to-human transmissions, and the import sources of international infectious cases.

submitted time 2020-02-21 Hits290956Downloads73640 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201803.00011 [pdf]

New material of the Late Miocene Moschus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Huade, Nei Mongol, North China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; ZHANG Li-Min; BAI Wei-Peng; CAI Bao-Quan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Moschus grandaevus was firstly uncovered from the Late Miocene deposits at Ertemte, Olan Chorea, Harr Obo and Hua Ba in or around Huade County in the middle part of Nei Mongol and was described by Schlosser in 1924. The excavations by Sino-Soviet Joint Paleontological Team in 1959 and recent excavations since 2013 at Tuchengzi (Tuchetse), another locality at Huade, accumulated many specimens of the musk deer. The morphology and metric studies show that the musk deer specimens from Tuchengzi are the same as those described by Schlosser and can be included into the same species. M. grandaevus ranges from Siberia of Russia to North China, and likely to southern China, in the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The appearance of such folivorous musk deer in the Late Miocene deposits at Tuchengzi indicates that there were forests there during that period. The cladistic analyses show that the fossil species of Moschus are closely related to each other and can be grouped together as Moschini or Moschinae. Micromeryx is closer to Moschus and Cervidae, but the relationship between Micromeryx and Moschus is more complicated than previously considered; nonetheless Hispanomeryx is closer to Bovidae. Schlosser (1924)记述了最初发现于内蒙古化德境内或附近的二登图、敖兰卓蕾、哈尔敖包及华坝的古麝(Moschus grandaevus)。1959年中苏古生物考察队在化德的另一个地点土城子采集到不少古麝化石。2013年以来作者在土城子进行的野外发掘积累了更多的古麝化石标本。土城子标本在形态和测量数据方面和二登图等地点的古麝非常接近,可以归入同一种。根据现有资料归纳,古麝的地理分布范围自俄罗斯的西伯利亚到华北,很可能延伸到华南;其地质时代分布范围为晚中新世–上新世。食叶型古麝在土城子晚中新世地层中的出现说明当时土城子一带有森林环境。支序分析显示麝属(Moschus)化石种相互之间的系统关系非常近,可以归并为麝族(Moschini)或麝亚科(Moschinae); Micromeryx更接近麝属和鹿科,它与麝属之间的关系比以前认为的复杂,而Hispanomeryx更接近牛科。

submitted time 2018-03-02 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits6940Downloads1488 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201711.01910 [pdf]

New material of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Chutoulang, Chifeng, eastern Nei Mongol, China and binary faunal similarity analyses

DONG Wei; ZHANG Li-Min; LIU Wen-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

New specimens from a new locality at Chutoulang in eastern Nei Mongol were identified as Canis chihliensis, Coelodonta nihowanensis, Hipparion (Proboscidipparion) sinense, Equus sanmeniensis, Sus lydekkeri, Muntiacus cf. M. lacustris, Axis shansius, Eucladoceros boulei, Spirocerus cf. S. wongi and Bison palaeosinensis. They enriched the mammalian fauna of Chutoulang to 30 taxa together with the material from Dongliang, Dongcun Beigou and Dongcun Nangou localities. The mammalian fossils from these four localities are all from the same horizon and can be regarded as the same fauna, i.e. Chutoulang fauna. The composition of Chutoulang fauna is the closest to that of Nihewan (s.s.) by binary faunal similarity coefficients. The age of Chutoulang fauna is between those of Nihewan (s.s.) and Juyuandong at Liucheng according to Brainerd-Robinson’s sequence, extinction rates and antiquity coefficients. The numerical age of Chutoulang fauna is estimated between 1.4–1.6 Ma based on those of compared faunas. Carnivora are the most numerous in Chutoulang fauna with 11 taxa, but mostly the small sized ones. Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla make about half of the fauna. They are mostly large sized forms. The presence of numerous browsers or forest dwellers implies the existence of forest or woodland in Chutoulang area during that period. The presence of grazers and openland dwellers indicates the existence of larger area of grassland or steppes than that of woodland or forests. Most members of Chutoulang fauna are temperate habitat dwellers with a few cold-prone forms such as Ochotona and Coelodonta. The climate in Chutoulang area in the Early Pleistocene was thus similar to that of today. Chutoulang fauna is the most northeastern Early Pleistocene fauna in China and it can be recommended as a type site of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna in northeastern China.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1582Downloads740 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.00153 [pdf]

Structural Modification for Antitumor Nitrogenous Steroid

XIE Tian-Peng; YANG Kang; ZHANG Li-Zhi; CHEN De-Sheng; ZOU Kun; HUANG Nian-Yu
Subjects: Chemistry >> Physical Chemistry

Natural steroids have been showing notable cytotoxic activities, which are quite interesting lead compounds for the development of anticancer drug including estramustine and prednimustine. Considering that these semi-synthetic molecules are nitrogen mustard functionalized steroidal derivatives, the present review is focused on the methodologies of introducing nitrogen atom or nitrogen-containing heterocycles on A~D rings or side chains of steroids, and analysis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for these man-made cytotoxic steroids

submitted time 2017-11-05 From cooperative journals:《结构化学》 Hits1022Downloads526 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201708.00325 [pdf]

New materials of Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Tuchengzi of Huade, Nei Mongol, North China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; ZHANG Li-Min; CAI Bao-Quan3
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Five taxa of Cervidae were identified from the new collection at Tuchengzi locality in Huade, Nei Mongol: Eostyloceros blainvillei, E. triangularis, Euprox sp., Cervavitus huadeensis and C. shanxius, among which the first three taxa were discovered for the first time in Huade area, and the dental specimens of the last two taxa from Tuchengzi locality are also described for the first time. E. blainvillei is a large muntiacine, diagnosed by long, thick and medially curved main beam and a relatively long brow tine emerging directly from the burr. It was originally found in Yushe Basin in Shanxi Province, and reported later from Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. Huade is the third area yielding the species. E. triangularis distinguishes from E. blainvillei by its special main beam with triangular cross sections, and it was reported only from Yushe Basin. Its presence in Huade extended its geographic distribution northward to Nei Mongol. Euprox is a transitional form of cervids from permanent antlers to seasonally deciduous ones and it is found in several localities across Eurasia. Huade is the third area in Nei Mongol yielding the taxon after Tung Gur and Siziwang Qi (Siziwang Banner). C. huadeensis is a pliocervine with four tines, and particularly with two distal tines sword-like. It is found at Tuchengzi for the second time, but not elsewhere so far, and it seems to be an endemic taxon. C. shanxius distinguishes from C. novorossiae by absence of Palaeomeryx fold on lower molars. It is widely found in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Nei Mongol of northern China. It is often found with numerous specimens in a locality that indicates it lived in large herds. E. blainvillei, E. triangularis and C. shanxius are main members of Yushe I, i.e. Mahui Formation or Baodean. Euprox appeared also mainly in the Late Miocene. The geological age of Tuchengzi locality based on excavated cervids is therefore the Late Miocene. The numerous specimens of C. shanxius indicates forested environment in Huade area in that age. 继1959年中苏古生物联合考察队在内蒙古化德地区发掘采集到大量晚中新世哺乳动物化石后,笔者的课题组于2013~2016年间在化德的土城子地点发掘采集到不少哺乳动物化石。经过修理和研究,鉴定出鹿科化石的5个种类:布氏始柱角鹿(Eostyloceros blainvillei), 三角始柱角鹿(E. triangularis), 真角鹿未定种(Euprox sp.), 化德祖鹿(Cervavitus huadeensis)和山西祖鹿(C. shanxius)。其中前3个种类是在化德地区首次发现,而后两个种的牙齿材料也是在土城子地点首次记述。布氏始柱角鹿是一种较大的麂类,以其鹿角具一个粗长而内弯的主枝及一个直接从角环上伸出的较长的眉枝为特征,以前主要发现于山西的榆社盆地,在青海柴达木盆地也找到过,而化德是出现这个种类的第三个地区。三角始柱角鹿以其主枝横切面呈三角形而与布氏始柱角鹿相区别,以前仅见于榆社盆地,因此新发现的三角始柱角鹿将其地理分布范围扩大到内蒙古。真角鹿是从非脱换型鹿角向季节性脱换型鹿角过渡的代表,在欧亚大陆都有分布,化德是继通古尔和四子王旗之后在内蒙古发现这个属的第三个地区。化德祖鹿的鹿角具有4个枝,远端两个枝剑形,在土城子地点是第二次发现,但目前尚未在其他地区发现过,似乎是化德一带的地方种类。山西祖鹿以其下臼齿不具古鹿褶而与新罗斯祖鹿(Cervavitus novorossiae)相区别。山西祖鹿在中国北方的分布较广,主要见于山西、陕西、甘肃和内蒙古,而且在每个地点的化石标本较多,指示其种群密度较大。布氏始柱角鹿、三角始柱角鹿和山西祖鹿是榆社盆地中榆社I带的主要鹿科成员,出现在岩石地层的马会组或生物年代学的保德期。真角鹿的时代分布主要在晚中新世。因此根据土城子地点的鹿科化石判断其地质时代应为晚中新世,而较多的山西祖鹿标本指示化德一带在晚中新世有较广的森林。

submitted time 2017-08-24 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1848Downloads711 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201708.00172 [pdf]

New material of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Chutoulang, Chifeng, eastern Nei Mongol, China and binary faunal similarity analyses

DONG Wei; ZHANG Li-Min; LIU Wen-Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

New specimens from a new locality at Chutoulang in eastern Nei Mongol were identifed as Canis chihliensis, Coelodonta nihowanensis, Hipparion (Proboscidipparion) sinense,Equus sanmeniensis, Sus lydekkeri, Muntiacus cf. M. lacustris, Axis shansius, Eucladoceros boulei, Spirocerus cf. S. wongi and Bison palaeosinensis. They enriched the mammalian fauna of Chutoulang to 30 taxa together with the material from Dongliang, Dongcun Beigou and Dongcun Nangou localities. The mammalian fossils from these four localities are all from the same horizon and can be regarded as the same fauna, i.e. Chutoulang fauna. The composition of Chutoulang fauna is the closest to that of Nihewan (s.s.) by binary faunal similarity coeffcients. The age of Chutoulang fauna is between those of Nihewan (s.s.) and Juyuandong at Liucheng according to Brainerd-Robinson’s sequence, extinction rates and antiquity coeffcients. The numerical age of Chutoulang fauna is estimated between 1.4–1.6 Ma based on those of compared faunas. Carnivora are the most numerous in Chutoulang fauna with 11 taxa, but mostly the small sized ones.Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla make about half of the fauna. They are mostly large sized forms. The presence of numerous browsers or forest dwellers implies the existence of forest or woodland in Chutoulang area during that period. The presence of grazers and openland dwellers indicates the existence of larger area of grassland or steppes than that of woodland or forests. Most members of Chutoulang fauna are temperate habitat dwellers with a few cold-prone forms such as Ochotona and Coelodonta. The climate in Chutoulang area in the Early Pleistocene was thus similar to that of today. Chutoulang fauna is the most northeastern Early Pleistocene fauna in China and it can be recommended as a type site of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna in northeastern China.

submitted time 2017-08-08 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1316Downloads735 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201703.01016 [pdf]

cDNA microarray analysis of differential gene expression and regulation in clinically drug-resistant isolates of Candida albicans from bone marrow transplanted patients

Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Dong; Cao, Yong-Bing; Yu, an-Yuan Yu; Wang, De-Jun; Ying, Kang; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Jiang, Yuan-Ying
Subjects: Biology >> Biomedical Laboratory Science

Fungi have emerged as the fourth most common pathogens isolated in nosocomial bloodstream infections, and Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Only a few antibiotics are effective in the treatment of fungal infections. In addition, the repetition and lengthy duration of fluconazole therapy has led to an increased incidence of azole resistance and treatment failure associated with C. albicans. To investigate the mechanism of drug resistance and explore new targets to treat clinically resistant fungal pathogens, we examined the large-scale gene expression profile of two sets of matched fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant bloodstream C. albicans isolates from bone marrow transplanted (BMT) patients for the first time by microarray analysis. More than 198 differentially expressed genes were identified and they were confirmed and validated by RT-PCR independently. Not surprisingly, the resistant phenotype is associated with increased expression of CDR mRNA, as well as some common genes involved in drug resistance such as CaIFU5, CaRTA2 and CaIFD6. Meanwhile, some special functional groups of genes, including ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes (IPF7530, CaYOR1, CaPXA1), oxidative stress response genes (CaALD5, CaGRP1, CaSOD2, IPF10565), copper transport and iron mobilization-related genes (CaCRD1/2, CaCTR1/2, CaCCC2, CaFET3) were found to be differentially expressed in the resistant isolates. Furthermore, among these differentially expressed genes, some co-regulated with CaCDR1, CaCDR2 and CaIFU5, such as CaPDR16 and CaIFD6, have a DRE-like element and may interact with TAC1 in the promoter region. These findings may shed light on mechanisms of azole resistance in C. albicans and clinical antifungal therapy.

submitted time 2017-03-30 Hits2312Downloads874 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01727 [pdf]

Cilostazol inhibits plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation

Sun, Fei; Yin, Zhao; Shi, Quan-Xing; Zhao, Bei; Wang, Shou-Li; Yu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Guo
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Background Cilostazol, an anti-platelet drug for treating coronary heart disease, has been reported to modulate immune cell functions. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been found to participate in the progression of atherosclerosis mainly through interferon a (IFN-alpha) production. Whether cilostazol influences pDCs activation is still not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of cilostazol on cell activation and antigen presentation of pDCs in vitro in this study. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated by Ficoll centrifugation and pDCs sorted by flow cytometry were used in this study. After pretreated with cilostazol for 2 h, cells were stimulated with CpG-A, R848 or virus for 6 h or 20 h, or stimulated with CpG-B for 48 h and then co-cultured with naive T cell for five days. Cytokines in supernatant and intracellular cytokines were analyzed by ELISA or flow cytometry respectively. Results Our data indicated that cilostazol could inhibit IFN-alpha and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) production from pDCs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the ability of priming naive T cells of pDCs was also impaired by cilostazol. The inhibitory effect was not due to cell killing since the viability of pDCs did not change upon cilostazol treatment. Conclusion Cilostazol inhibits pDCs cell activation and antigen presentation in vitro, which may explain how cilostazol protects against atherosclerosis.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits1418Downloads651 Comment 0

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