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1. chinaXiv:202104.00006 [pdf]

Climate change and evolution of early lagomorphs (Mammalia): a study perspective based on new materials of Ordolagus from Nei Mongol (northern China)

Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Early Oligocene is a critical time for global climate changes in the Cenozoic. This epoch witnessed severe mammalian faunal turnovers known as “Grande Coupure” in Europe and “Mongolian Remodelling” in Asia. However, insights about morphological changes in Oligocene mammal lineages have not been explored in detail. One of the least diversified groups of recent mammals, lagomorpha, is globally common in the fossil records, especially in Asia. During the Oligocene, many Eocene archaic lagomorph taxa died out and were replaced by more advanced forms. New findings from Nei Mongol and re-examination of the specimens from older collections enabled a revision of a common Asian lagomorph genus, Ordolagus, which possibly has a close affinity with the Middle–Late Eocene genus Gobiolagus. In Nei Mongol, we recognized the presence of Ordolagus during the basal Early Oligocene. Comparisons with coeval and slightly older lagomorph taxa from Asia and North America show that Ordolagus attained some salient tooth morphological characters (i.e., development of anteroconid on p3, full hypselodonty of cheek teeth, and lingual connection of trigonid and talonid on p4–m2), which are also the key features of modern leporids. The appearance of those morphologic features in Ordolagus is coeval to major global or regional climatic changes. Further investigations on Asian early lagomorphs compared with the study of other small mammals and local climatic factors will be essential to refine the role of lagomorphs as palaeoclimatic proxies.

submitted time 2021-04-02 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits161Downloads71 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202104.00007 [pdf]

An Upper Miocene “Hipparion fauna” locality sandwiched by basalts in Hanjiaying, Nei Mongol

Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Here we report a Hipparion fauna locality discovered in between two basalt layers near Hanjiaying Village, Jining District, Wulanchabu City, Nei Mongol. K-Ar isotopic dating of the lower and upper level of the basalt constrains the age of the fauna from 7.2 to 6.8 Ma. Compared with classical Hipparion fauna from northern China, the Hanjiaying fauna is closer to those from Baode of Shanxi, Siziwang Banner of Nei Mongol and the Linxia Basin of Gansu. It is similar to the Loc. 43, 44 and 49 from Baode by faunal composition, confirming their age to be ~7.0 Ma rather than 5.5 Ma. The high similarity with the fossils from Wulanhua, Siziwang Banner, Nei Mongol, verified the age of Wulanhua fauna at about 7 Ma. Compared with faunas from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, it is more similar to those from the upper part of the Liushu Formation, especially the Yangjiashan fauna. Based on the faunal composition and their tooth morphology, the Hanjiaying fauna could be included in the “Gazella dorcadoides” fauna, which is supposed to be at the west paleobiome in northern China during the Late Miocene.

submitted time 2021-04-02 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits112Downloads47 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201711.01896 [pdf]

Morphology and taxonomy of Gazella (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene Bahe Formation, Lantian, Shaanxi Province, China

ZHANG Zhao-Qun; YANG Rui
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Fossil gazelles have been widely distributed in Eurasia and Africa during the late Neogene. They are key elements of “Hipparion” faunas with prominent biochronologic and ecological significance. However, no pre-Baodean age gazelle previously reported from China. We describe here in detail materials found from the Bahe Formation, Shaanxi Province, which include by far the most complete skulls and postcranials. The first fossil gazelle skeleton is mounted based on the new findings. Morphology and measurements show the similarity with Gazella lydekkeri from Dhok Pathan Formation of middle Siwaliks, different from the most common species G. gaudryi, G. paotehensis, and G. dorcadoides from Baodean age and other gazelles from Europe. Ecomorphology and measurements of long bones indicate the Lantian species, Gazella cf. G. lydekkeri, is possibly a fast runner, adapted to an open environment in Bahean age. The open environment was also suggested by faunal composition, sedimentological analysis and isotope data.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1625Downloads622 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201711.01898 [pdf]

A new mimotonidan Mina hui (Mammalia, Glires) from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China

LI Chuan-Kui; WANG Yuan-Qing; ZHANG Zhao-Qun; MAO Fang-Yuan1MENG Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Here we report a new genus and species, Mina hui gen. et sp. nov., of basal Glires from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China. The new taxon is characterized by combination of the following characters: medium-sized mimotonidan; upper dental formula; d I2 transversely narrow and having smooth labial surface without longitudinal groove; M1 the largest cheek tooth and other cheek teeth decreasing in size considerably away from M1 so that the external margin of the upper cheek tooth row is distinctly arched labially; lingual side of upper molars unilaterally hypsodont and bearing no hypostria; hypocone being slightly distolingual to protocone; presence of a mesostyle; upper incisor with double-layered enamel structure; posterior border of anterior root of zygoma situated lateral to M1–2 and infraorbital foramen positioned low. M. hui is one of the earliest known Glires, co-existing with Heomys and Mimotona in Qianshan geographically and Middle Paleocene (ca. 61 Ma) chronologically. We consider that the Mimotonida would include two families: the monotypic Mimotonidae that contains Mimotona and Mimolagidae that includes Mimolagus, Gomphos, Anatolimys, Mina and possibly Amar aleator. Among known mimotonidans, Mimotona probably represents a primitive “morphotype” as the ancestor of lagomorphs, whereas Mimolagidae includes a side branch diverged from the clade evolved toward lagomorphs. Future research may show that Mimolagidae is not a natural group, and may possibly submerge into Mimotonida, or involve more than one family-level clade. The occurrence of Heomys, Mimotona and Mina from Qianshan show that Glires had already diversified by the Middle Paleocene.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2299Downloads986 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.01906 [pdf]

Presence of the calcaneal canal in basal Glires

ZHANG Zhao-Qun; LI Chuan-Kui; WANG Jian; WANG Yuan-Qing; MENG Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

A unique canal (calcaneal canal) running diagonally through the calcaneus was commonly considered as characteristic for lagomorphs, both extant and fossil, but absent in rodents and other pertinent lagomorph relatives. However, our investigation of a calcaneus from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui Province and specimens previously grouped in Mimotonidae also shows presence of canals on calcaneus bones. To further explore the unique character, we scanned calcanei of Ordolagus, Mimolagus, Gomphos, Rhombomylus, and Oryctolagus using micro CT and investigated the calcanei of some other related taxa under microscope. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the calcanei based on CT data of these taxa confirmed the presence of apertures traversing the large medullary cavity. The diagonally oriented calcaneal canal is present not only in lagomorphs, but also in non-lagomorph duplicidentates, such as Mimotona, Gomophos, and simplicidentates, such as Rhombomylus, though smaller in size. Hence, the presence of calcaneal canal may be one of the synapomophic characters for Glires, not only for the order Lagomorpha. The shared calcaneus character confirms the close relationship between Simplicidentata and Duplicidentata.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2477Downloads834 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201711.01908 [pdf]

On the geological age of mammalian fossils from Shanmacheng, Gansu Province

ZHANG Zhao-Qun WANG Jian
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The mammalian fossils (Mimolagus and Anagalopsis) from Shanmacheng in the Jiuxi Basin described by Bohlin in 1951 have long been enigmatic in systematics and controversial in the geological age. New survey in this area suggests the fossils were discovered from the Shanmacheng member of the Huoshaogou Formation. Comparisons of the Shanmacheng fossils with new specimens of Mimolagus from the Irdin Mahan Formation, and Anagale from the Late Eocene Ulan Gochu Formation, Nei Mongol, suggest an Eocene age for the Shanmacheng fossils. Reinterpretation of the fossil horizon and the paleomagnetic data of Dai et al. (2005) indicates the polarity zones from Huoshaogou section can be correlated to GPTS Chrons 13?18. Therefore, the Huoshaogou Formation may cover late Middle Eocene to Late Eocene and Bohlin’s fossil horizon can roughly be correlated to Chron18n (~39?40 Ma) of late Middle Eocene. The late Middle Eocene age of Mimolagus rodens narrows the time gap with its close relative Gomphos that have been recorded from Early to Middle Eocene. The archaic group Anagalidae may have become extinct before Oligocene.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1421Downloads636 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201709.00122 [pdf]

Introduction to terminologies of tooth enamel microstructures and a proposal for their standard Chinese translations

MAO Fang-Yuan; LI Chuan-Kui; MENG Jin; LI Qian; BAI Bin; WANG Yuan-Qing; ZHANG Zhao-Qun; ZHAO Ling-Xia; WANG Ban-Yue
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Tooth enamel is composed of elongated, hexagonal crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Some crystallites are arranged into various regual structures and futher formed a composite structure in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical system can provide a basis for analysis different levels of structural complexity from varitaiton of particular crystallite strucutes to variation of structural types throughout a individual’s dentition. The size, orientation, distribution and the packing patterns of crystallites are gene-comtrolled and have limited range of intraspecific variability. Thus, these microstructures provide considerable and reliable morphological characters that help understanding of external dental morphology in context of both phylogeny and function in vertebrates. Because teeth are highly resistant to weathering, mainly owing to their enamel covering, so that they were commonly preserved as fossils. This organic system, particularly their microstructures, has attracted more and more attention from vertebrate paleontologists and other morphologists. However, as already recognized by many previous studies, some terminologies of the enamel microstructures have been complex and used inconsistently. Although considerable effort has been made to study enamel microstructures in China during the last few decades, a standard terminology of enamel microstructures in Chinese has not be formally brought into line with that in English literatures. Here we intend to introduce and systematize the relevant terminology used in the study of enamel microstructures and translate them into Chinese, in hoping that this systematic effort will enhance researches of enamel microstructures in China. 脊椎动物牙齿釉质显微结构具丰富的形态学特征,承载着系统发育和生物力学等方面的信息。本文在前人的研究基础上,试图系统地介绍牙釉质显微结构的基本内容,提出牙釉质研究中相关术语的中文译名建议,并对一些重要术语做了简要解释,供相关研究者参考,以期促进牙釉质显微结构研究的进一步发展。

submitted time 2017-09-28 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits5725Downloads2114 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201708.00190 [pdf]

Small mammal taphonomy of three Miocene localities from Damiao, Nei Mongol, China

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Predation is the most common cause of death in small mammals. It also causes the greatest modification on their remains. Other postmortem processes, such as weathering, trampling, and transportation all modify bones and contribute to the forming assemblage. Here we examined three Miocene localities from Damiao, Nei Mongol, China with different fluvial subenvironments. The ages span from early Miocene to early late Miocene (ca 21–11.6 Ma). We describe the sedimentary context and taphonomic features of the small mammal assemblages, and identify the responsible agents for the fossil accumulations. Our study reveals predation as primary means of accumulation for all three localities. However, there is overprinting of other means of accumulation such as fluvial transportation and possibly signs of trampling at the two younger localities. Results indicate possibly different predators for all localities; owls for the oldest one, and diurnal birds of prey or mammalian agents for the younger two. We also show that systematic excavation for small mammals can be done, and in this way it may be possible to reduce some of the damage collecting always produces. 捕食是小哺乳动物死亡最常见的原因,也导致被捕食动物遗骸发生明显改变。动物死亡后的风化、踩踏、搬运等过程也会改变动物的骨骼并影响到化石组合的形成。本文研究了内蒙古大庙三个中新世化石地点,时代从早中新世到晚中新世早期(约21~11.6 ma)。通过分析各小哺乳动物化石组合的沉积背景以及埋藏学特征识别化石埋藏的主要成因。结果显示出捕食是三个地点小哺乳动物化石埋藏的基本成因,而在两个年轻的地点中也有流水搬运与可能的踩踏因素的叠加。三个地点可能存在不一样的捕食者:早中新世地点以猫头鹰捕食为主,中、晚中新世地点则以日间活动的鸟类或哺乳类为主要捕食者。研究还显示小哺乳动物的系统发掘是可行的,在一定程度上可以减少采样过程中产生的破坏。

submitted time 2017-08-10 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1453Downloads605 Comment 0

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