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1. chinaXiv:201708.00204 [pdf]

A new microraptorine specimen (Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) with a brief comment on the evolution of compound bones in theropods

XU Xing; LI Feng
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Microraptorinae is a recently discovered subgroup of dromaeosaurid theropods, mostly comprising species from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China. Here we describe a new microraptorine specimen from the Jiufotang Formation (the upper section of the Jehol Group) of Dapingfang, Chaoyang, Liaoning, which displays interesting morphological features not previously documented within Microraptorinae. Noteworthy are several osteological features, including dental and ischial ones, which are transitional between the condition of Sinornithosaurus and that of Microraptor. These features highlight the existence of a spectrum of morphological variation between Sinornithosaurus, which is more like a typical dromaeosaurid, and Microraptor, which shares many characteristics with troodontids. However, the taxonomic significance of these variations has not to be fully assessed yet. A feature deserving special mention is the fusion of the pubes to the ilia in this specimen, which has implications for the evolution of compound bones in theropods+. Our preliminary analysis suggests that many compound bones in birds have been formed by sequential fusion of multiple elements in a peramorphic process. 小盗龙亚科是驰龙科兽脚类恐龙中新近发现的一个亚群,多数属种产自中国辽宁西部下白垩统热河群。本文描记一件产自辽宁省朝阳县大平房地区九佛堂组(热河群上段)的小盗龙亚科的新标本,该标本具有一些未曾报道过的有趣形态特征。尤其值得关注的是,一些特征呈现出介于中国鸟龙和小盗龙之间的过渡状态,其中部分来自牙齿和坐骨。这些特征突出显示了在更接近典型驰龙类的中国鸟龙和具有许多伤齿龙科特征的小盗龙之间存在着一系列的形态变异。然而,这些变异特征在分类上的意义尚未得到充分评估。特别值得一提的是该标本中相互愈合的耻骨和肠骨,这一特征有助于阐明复合骨在兽脚类恐龙中的演化模式。初步分析显示许多鸟类的复合骨都是通过在过型形成过程中各组分的顺序愈合形成的。

submitted time 2017-08-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1290Downloads474 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201708.00145 [pdf]

Modular Properties of 3D Higher Spin Theory

Wei Li, Feng-Li Lin, Chih-Wei Wang
Subjects: Physics >> The Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields

In the three-dimensional sl(N) Chern-Simons higher-spin theory, we prove that the conical surplus and the black hole solution are related by the S-transformation of the modulus of the boundary torus. Then applying the modular group on a given conical surplus solution, we generate a 'SL(2,Z)' family of smooth constant solutions. We then show how these solutions are mapped into one another by coordinate transformations that act non-trivially on the homology of the boundary torus. After deriving a thermodynamics that applies to all the solutions in the 'SL(2,Z)' family, we compute their entropies and free energies, and determine how the latter transform under the modular transformations. Summing over all the modular images of the conical surplus, we write down a (tree-level) modular invariant partition function.

submitted time 2017-08-05 Hits476Downloads235 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201708.00144 [pdf]

Quantum Decoherence with Holography

Shih-Hao Ho, Wei Li, Feng-Li Lin, Bo Ning
Subjects: Physics >> The Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields

Quantum decoherence is the loss of a system's purity due to its interaction with the surrounding environment. Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study how a system decoheres when its environment is a strongly-coupled theory. In the Feynman-Vernon formalism, we compute the influence functional holographically by relating it to the generating function of Schwinger-Keldysh propagators and thereby obtain the dynamics of the system's density matrix. We present two exactly solvable examples: (1) a straight string in a BTZ black hole and (2) a scalar probe in AdS5. We prepare an initial state that mimics Schr\"odinger's cat and identify different stages of its decoherence process using the time-scaling behaviors of R\'enyi entropy. We also relate decoherence to local quantum quenches, and by comparing the time evolution behaviors of the Wigner function and R\'enyi entropy we demonstrate that the relaxation of local quantum excitations leads to the collapse of its wave-function.

submitted time 2017-08-05 Hits507Downloads255 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201705.00713 [pdf]

Spike Protein, S, of Human Coronavirus HKU1: Role in Viral Life Cycle and Application in Antibody Detection

Chan, Che-Man; Woo, Patrick C. Y; Lau, Susanna K. P; Tse, Herman; Chen, Hong-Lin; Li, Feng; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chen, Ling; Huang, Jian-Dong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Subjects: Biology >> Biomedical Laboratory Science

We recently described the discovery, genome, clinical features, genotypes and evolution of a novel and global human respiratory virus named human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) which is not yet culturable. We expressed a C-terminal FLAG-tagged CoV-HKU1 spike (S) protein by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) system and investigated its maturation profile. Pulse chase labeling revealed that S-FLAG was expressed as high-mannose N-glycans of monomers and trimers. It was predominantly cleaved into subdomains S1 and S2 during maturation. S1 was secreted into the medium. Immunofluorescence analysis visualized S along the secretory pathway from endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane. Cleavage of S and release of HCoV-HKU1 S pseudotyped virus were inhibited by furin or furin-like enzyme inhibitors. The cell-based expressed full-length S-FLAG could be recognized by the convalescent serum obtained from a patient with HCoV-HKU1 pneumonia. The data suggest that the native form of HCoV-HKU1 spike expressed in our system can be used in developing serological diagnostic assay and in understanding the role of S in the viral life cycle. Exp Biol Med 233:1527-1536, 2008

submitted time 2017-05-10 Hits863Downloads447 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01734 [pdf]

Real-Time Monitoring Surface Chemistry-Dependent In Vivo Behaviors of Protein Nanocages via Encapsulating an NIR-II Ag2S Quantum Dot

Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Yejun; Wang, Qiangbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xian-En
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Protein nanocages (PNCs) have been recognized as a promising platform for nanomedicine innovation. Real-time in vivo tracking of PNCs can provide critically important information for the development of PNC-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general strategy for monitoring the behaviors of PNCs in vivo by encapsulating a Ag2S quantum dot (QD) with fluorescence in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) inside the PNC, using simian virus 40 (SV40) PNC (PNCSV40) as a model. Benefiting from the high spatiotemporal resolution and deep tissue penetration of NIR-II fluorescence imaging, the dynamic distribution of the PNCSV40 in living mice was tracked in real time with high fidelity, and adopting the PEGylation strategy, surface chemistry-dependent in vivo behaviors of PNCSV40 were clearly revealed. This study represents the first evidence of real-time tracking of the intrinsic behaviors of PNCs in vivo without interference in PNC-host interactions by encapsulating nanoprobes inside. The as-described imaging strategy will facilitate the study of interactions between exogenously introduced PNCs and host body and prompt the development of future protein-based drugs, sensors, and high-efficacy targeted delivery systems.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits2418Downloads903 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.00395 [pdf]

Nonfunctional alleles of long-day suppressor genes independently regulate flowering time

Xiao-Ming Zheng; Li Feng; Junrui Wang; Weihua Qiao; Lifang Zhang; Yunlian Cheng; Qingwen Yang
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant cytology, plant genetics & plant morphology

Due to the remarkable adaptability to various environments, rice varieties with diverse flowering times have been domesticated or improved from Oryza rufipogon. Detailed knowledge of the genetic factors controlling flowering time will facilitate understanding the adaptation mechanism in cultivated rice and enable breeders to design appropriate genotypes for distinct preferences. In this study, four genes (Hd1, DTH8, Ghd7 and OsPRR37) in a rice long-day suppression pathway were collected and sequenced in 154, 74, 69 and 62 varieties of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) respectively. Under long-day conditions, varieties with nonfunctional alleles flowered significantly earlier than those with functional alleles. However, the four genes have different genetic effects in the regulation of flowering time: Hd1 and OsPRR37 are major genes that generally regulate rice flowering time for all varieties, while DTH8 and Ghd7 only regulate regional rice varieties. Geographic analysis and network studies suggested that the nonfunctional alleles of these suppression loci with regional adaptability were derived recently and independently. Alleles with regional adaptability should be taken into consideration for genetic improvement. The rich genetic variations in these four genes, which adapt rice to different environments, provide the flexibility needed for breeding rice varieties with diverse flowering times.

submitted time 2016-05-03 Hits2036Downloads499 Comment 0

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