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1. chinaXiv:202102.00085 [pdf]

An electrophysiological investigation of the temporal asynchrony effect on character-speech sound integration in Chinese typically developing children and children with dyslexia

Du, Yingchun; Li, Yizhen; Qin, Li; Bi, Hongyan
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

The neural mechanism of orthographic-phonological integration was influenced by the temporal relationship of cross-modal stimuli. However, previous studies mainly investigated the neural mechanism of letter-speech sound integration in precise temporal synchrony or small temporal asynchrony conditions. In this study, character-speech sound integration was investigated in a relatively wide temporal window. Chinese characters were presented synchronously to the onset of speech sounds or before speech sound by 300 or 600 ms (referred as AV0, AV300 and AV600). ERP responses evoked by congruent condition (speech sounds were paired with congruent visual characters) and baseline condition (speech sounds were paired with Korean characters) were compared. Different electrophysiological markers were found in the temporal synchrony and temporal asynchrony conditions. In the AV0 condition, developing dyslexia (DD) and typically developing (TD) children showed similar congruency effect on P1, N170 and N300 components, demonstrating the influence of speech sound on visual character processing. In the AV300 condition, DD group showed left-lateralized congruency effect on N200, whereas TD children showed bilateral congruency effect on N200. Both groups showed bilateral congruency effect on N200 in the AV600 condition. We speculate that the insufficient character-speech sound integration exhibited by dyslexic children in the AV300 condition was probably caused by their slow visual processing speed. The results provide unique insight into the neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a wide temporal window and point out the necessity to investigate neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a relatively wide temporal window.

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits61Downloads28 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00072 [pdf]

How precipitation and grazing influence the ecological functions of drought-prone grasslands on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, China?

HUANG Xiaotao; LUO Geping; CHEN Chunbo; PENG Jian; ZHANG Chujie; ZHOU Huakun; YAO Buqing; MA Zhen; XI Xiaoyan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Drought-prone grasslands provide a critical resource for the millions of people who are dependent on livestock for food security. However, this ecosystem is potentially vulnerable to climate change (e.g., precipitation) and human activity (e.g., grazing). Despite this, the influences of precipitation and grazing on ecological functions of drought-prone grasslands in the Tianshan Mountains remain relatively unexplored. Therefore, we conducted a systematic field investigation and a clipping experiment (simulating different intensities of grazing) in a drought-prone grassland on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in China to examine the influences of precipitation and grazing on aboveground biomass (AGB), soil volumetric water content (SVWC), and precipitation use efficiency (PUE) during the period of 2014–2017. We obtained the meteorological and SVWC data using an HL20 Bowen ratio system and a PR2 soil profile hydrometer, respectively. We found that AGB was clearly affected by both the amount and seasonal pattern of precipitation, and that PUE may be relatively low in years with either low or excessive precipitation. The PUE values were generally higher in the rapid growing season (April–July) than in the entire growing season (April–October). Overall, moderate grazing can promote plant growth under water stress conditions. The SVWC value was higher in the clipped plots than in the unclipped plots in the rapid growing season (April–July), but it was lower in the clipped plots than in the unclipped plots in the slow growing season (August–October). Our findings can enhance the understanding of the ecological effects of precipitation and grazing in drought-prone grasslands and provide data that will support the effective local grassland management.

submitted time 2021-01-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits303Downloads149 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00074 [pdf]

Long-term variations in runoff of the Syr Darya River Basin under climate change and human activities

Sanim BISSENBAYEVA; Jilili ABUDUWAILI; Assel SAPAROVA; Toqeer AHMED
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

In this study, we analyzed the hydrological and meteorological data from the Syr Darya River Basin during the period of 1930–2015 to investigate variations in river runoff and the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff. The Syr Darya River, which is supplied by snow and glacier meltwater upstream, is an important freshwater source for Central Asia, as nearly half of the population is concentrated in this area. River runoff in this arid region is sensitive to climate change and human activities. Therefore, estimation of the climatic and hydrological changes and the quantification of the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff are of great concern and important for regional water resources management. The long-term trends of hydrological time series from the selected 11 hydrological stations in the Syr Darya River Basin were examined by non-parametric methods, including the Pettitt change point test and Mann-Kendall trend tests. It was found that 8 out of 11 hydrological stations showed significant downward trends in river runoff. Change of river runoff variations occurred in the year around 1960. Moreover, during the study period (1930–2015), annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and annual potential evapotranspiration in the river basin increased substantially. We employed hydrological sensitivity method to evaluate the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. It was estimated that human activities accounted for over 82.6%–98.7% of the reduction in river runoff, mainly owing to water withdrawal for irrigation purpose. The observed variations in river runoff can subsequently lead to adverse ecological consequences from an ecological and regional water resources management perspective.

submitted time 2021-01-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits259Downloads132 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00076 [pdf]

Investigation of crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirement in the lower Amu Darya River Basin, Central Asia

Durdiev KHAYDAR; CHEN Xi; HUANG Yue; Makhmudov ILKHOM; LIU Tie; Ochege FRIDAY; Abdullaev FARKHOD; Gafforov KHUSEN; Omarakunova GULKAIYR
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

High water consumption and inefficient irrigation management in the agriculture sector of the middle and lower reaches of the Amu Darya River Basin (ADRB) have significantly influenced the gradual shrinking of the Aral Sea and its ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the crop water consumption in the growing seasons and the irrigation water requirement for different crop types in the lower ADRB during 2004–2017. We applied the FAO Penman–Monteith method to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) based on daily climatic data collected from four meteorological stations. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of specific crop types was calculated by the crop coefficient. Then, we analyzed the net irrigation requirement (NIR) based on the effective precipitation with crop water requirements. The results indicated that the lowest monthly ET0 values in the lower ADRB were found in December (18.2 mm) and January (16.0 mm), and the highest monthly ET0 values were found in June and July, with similar values of 211.6 mm. The annual ETc reached to 887.2, 1002.1, and 492.0 mm for cotton, rice, and wheat, respectively. The average regional NIR ranged from 514.9 to 715.0 mm in the 10 Irrigation System Management Organizations (UISs) in the study area, while the total required irrigation volume for the whole region ranged from 4.2×109 to 11.6×109 m3 during 2004–2017. The percentages of NIR in SIW (surface irrigation water) ranged from 46.4% to 65.2% during the study period, with the exceptions of the drought years of 2008 and 2011, in which there was a significantly less runoff in the Amu Darya River. This study provides an overview for local water authorities to achieve optimal regional water allocation in the study area.

submitted time 2021-01-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits284Downloads158 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202012.00015 [pdf]

An evolutionary analysis of economic hubs and transmission mechanisms for wastewater discharge

Li, Xuefeng
Subjects: Management Science >> Other Disciplines of Management Science

Due to the destruction of aquatic ecology and pollution of the water environment, policy formulation needs to pay more attention to factors other than economic benefits. Past research mainly relied on the average propagation lengths (APL) of wastewater discharge to empirically analyze the wastewater propagation between sectors. The hub sectors of wastewater discharge, which are densely-connected to other sectors, play key roles in reflecting wastewater discharge or wastewater treatment in the overall economic system. However, there is current ambiguity deficiency in analytic results of economic hubs and transmission mechanisms of wastewater discharge. At the same time, analyzing the transmission mechanism of wastewater discharge, proposing wastewater management and containment strategies are essential to sustainable development of water resource. This paper calculates the wastewater discharge APL based on the compiled sequential water input-occupancy-output tables of 49 sectors for 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017 in China. Then, we introduce more broadly marginal dependence linkages into APL. A coupled model named APL-HCG (APL with hub covariance graph) is proposed to analyze the hub wastewater discharge sectors and hub propagation chains overall. The results illustrate the evolutionary pattern of the hub sectors of wastewater discharge and the transmission mechanism implicit in the key wastewater propagation chains nationwide from 2002 to 2017.

submitted time 2021-01-18 Hits3113Downloads290 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202012.00013 [pdf]

Assessing two separate dimensions of interpersonal trust: Other-focused trust and propensity to trust

张明
Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

One’s propensity to trust others and others’ trustworthiness are two important aspects of interpersonal trust. Both theory and research suggest that it is possible to distinguish between an individual’s propensity to trust (one’s ‘trustingness’ or the extent to which one feels able to trust others) and their other-focused trust (the extent to which one feels that others are worthy of our trust). However, there is as yet no measure that distinguishes between these two components of trust. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of a proposed two-dimensional measure of trust that encompasses propensity to trust and other-focused trust components. To test discriminant validity, we also administered measures of personality, personal self-esteem, social capital, propensity to like people, perceived social support, as well as general and personal beliefs in a just world. Factor analyses supported the proposed two-factor model for the new trust measure. Further analyses supported the difference between these measures.

submitted time 2020-12-03 Hits1964Downloads306 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202011.00131 [pdf]

Can climate change influence agricultural GTFP in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China?

FENG,Jian; ZHAO,Lingdi; ZHANG,Yibo; SUN,Lingxiao; YU,Xiang; YU,Yang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

There are eight provinces and autonomous regions (Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Shanxi Province, and Shaanxi Province) in Northwest China, most areas of which are located in arid and semi-arid regions (northwest of the 400 mm precipitation line), accounting for 58.74% of the country's land area and sustaining approximately 7.84×106 people. Because of drought conditions and fragile ecology, these regions cannot develop agriculture at the expense of the environment. Given the challenges of global warming, the green total factor productivity (GTFP), taking CO2 emissions as an undesirable output, is an effective index for measuring the sustainability of agricultural development. Agricultural GTFP can be influenced by both internal production factors (labor force, machinery, land, agricultural plastic film, diesel, pesticide, and fertilizer) and external climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration). In this study, we used the Super-slacks-based measure (Super-SBM) model to measure agricultural GTFP during the period 2000–2016 at the regional level. Our results show that the average agricultural GTFP of most provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions underwent a fluctuating increase during the study period (2000–2016), and the fluctuation was caused by the production factors (input and output factors). To improve agricultural GTFP, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Gansu should reduce agricultural labor force input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Shanxi should decrease machinery input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Shanxi should reduce fertilizer input; Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia should reduce diesel input; Xinjiang and Gansu should decrease plastic film input; and Gansu, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia should cut pesticide input. Desirable output agricultural earnings should be increased in Qinghai and Tibet, and undesirable output (CO2 emissions) should be reduced in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Shaanxi. Agricultural GTFP is influenced not only by internal production factors but also by external climate factors. To determine the influence of climate factors on GTFP in these provinces and autonomous regions, we used a Geographical Detector (Geodetector) model to analyze the influence of climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) and identify the relationships between different climate factors and GTFP. We found that temperature played a significant role in the spatial heterogeneity of GTFP among provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions. For Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Tibet, a suitable average annual temperature would be in the range of 7°C–9°C; for Gansu, Shanxi, and Ningxia, it would be 11°C–13°C; and for Shaanxi, it would be 15°C–17°C. Stable climatic conditions and more efficient production are prerequisites for the development of sustainable agriculture. Hence, in the agricultural production process, reducing the redundancy of input factors is the best way to reduce CO2 emissions and to maintain temperatures, thereby improving the agricultural GTFP. The significance of this study is that it explores the impact of both internal production factors and external climatic factors on the development of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, identifying an effective way forward for the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2843Downloads320 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202011.00132 [pdf]

Responses of Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. in the sandy and loamy soils to water stress

PEI,Yanwu; HUANG,Laiming; SHAO,Ming'an; ZHANG,Yinglong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. is a major species that is widely planted in afforested soils with different textures in the transitional zone between Mu Us Desert and Loess Plateau, China. However, the responses of A. pedunculata to increasing intensity of water stress in different textural soils are not clear. Here, we conducted a soil column experiment to evaluate the effects of different textures (sandy and loamy) on water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE), biomass accumulation and ecological adaptability of A. pedunculata under increasing water stress, i.e., 90% (±5%) FC (field capacity), 75% (±5%) FC, 60% (±5%) FC, 45% (±5%) FC and 30% (±5%) FC in 2018. A. pedunculata grown in the sandy soil with the lowest (30% FC) and highest (90% FC) water contents had respectively 21.3%–37.0% and 4.4%–20.4% less transpiration than those with other water treatments (45%–75% FC). In contrast, A. pedunculata transpiration in the loamy soil decreased with decreasing water content. The magnitude of decrease in transpiration increased with increasing level of water deficit (45% and 30% FC). Mean daily and cumulative transpirations of the plant were significantly lower in the sandy soil than in the loamy soil under good water condition (90% FC), but the reverse was noted under water deficit treatments (45% and 30% FC). Plant height, stem diameter and total biomass initially increased with decreasing water content from 90% to 75% FC and then declined under severe water deficit conditions (45% and 30% FC) in the sandy soil. However, these plant parameters decreased with decreasing water content in the loamy soil. WUE in the sandy soil was 7.8%–12.3% higher than that in the loamy soil, which initially increased with decreasing water content from 90% to 75% FC and then declined under water deficit conditions (45% and 30% FC). The study showed that plant transpiration, biomass production and WUE responded differentially to increasing intensity of water stress in the sandy and loamy soils. The contrasting responses of A. pedunculata to water stress in different textural soils can guide future revegetation programs in the northern region of Chinese Loess Plateau by considering plant adaptability to varying soil and water conditions.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2170Downloads275 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202011.00133 [pdf]

Impacts of snow on seed germination are independent of seed traits and plant ecological characteristics in a temperate desert of Central Asia

ANNIWAER,Anlifeire ANNIWAER; SU,Yangui; ZHOU,Xiaobing; ZHANG,Yuanming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Seed germination profoundly impacts plant community composition within the plant life cycle. Snow is an important source of water for seed germination in the temperate deserts of Central Asia. Understanding how seed germination responds to variations in snow cover in relation to seed traits and plant ecological characteristics can help predict plant community sustainability and stability in Central Asia under a scenario climate change. This study investigated the seed germination of 35 plant species common to the Gurbantunggut Desert in Central Asia under the three snow treatments: (1) snow addition; (2) ambient snow; and (3) snow removal. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to assess interactions among the impacts of snow treatments, seed traits and plant ecological characteristics on seed germination. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) model was used to test the relationships between seed traits and seed germination. The results demonstrated that snow variations had no significant impacts on seed germination overall. Seed germination under the snow addition treatment was similar with that under the ambient snow treatment, irrespective of seed traits and plant ecological characteristics. Snow removal only had negative impacts on seed germination for certain groups of seed traits and plant ecological characteristics. Seed mass positively affected seed germination, showing a linear increase of arcsin square root-transformed seed germination with log-transformed seed mass. Seed shape also profoundly impacted seed germination, with a higher germination percentage for elongated and flat seeds. Seed germination differed under different plant life forms, with semi-shrub species showing a significantly higher germination percentage. Most importantly, although snow treatments, seed traits and plant ecological characteristics had no interactive effects on seed germination overall, some negative impacts from the snow removal treatment were detected when seeds were categorized on the basis of seed mass and shape. This result suggests that variations of snow cover may change plant community composition in this temperate desert due to their impacts on seed germination.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2221Downloads345 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202010.00076 [pdf]

Multisensory Integration Inhibits Pupillary Light Reflex: Evidence from Pupil Oscillation

Xiangyong Yuan; Yuhui Cheng; Yi Jiang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Multisensory integration is able to enhance stimulus saliency at the early stage of information processing hierarchy. Due to the saliency enhancement, concurrently presented audiovisual stimuli are shown to evoke a transient pupil dilation than its unisensory constituents, presumably reflecting an enhanced activation of the sympathetic pathway. Since pupil size is mediated by both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic pathways, it remains largely unknown whether multisensory integration modulates pupillary responses mediated by the parasympathetic pathway. To probe this issue, the present study measured the pupillary light reflex, which refers to the pupil constriction in response to brightness and is completely controlled by the parasympathetic pathway. We purposely evoked an oscillation of pupillary light reflex by periodically changing the luminance of the visual stimuli, and found this induced pupil oscillation was substantially attenuated when the bright but not the dark phase of a flickering stimulus was periodically and synchronously presented with a burst of tone (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, the inhibited pupillary light reflex vanished when the visual stimuli were moved from the central field to the periphery (Experiment 3), while persisted when the visual stimuli appeared outside the attention focus in a demanding task (Experiment 4). These findings that multisensory integration inhibits pupillary light reflex in an eccentricity dependent but attention independent manner offer preliminary but robust evidence that the parasympathetic pathway can be modulated by multisensory integration.

submitted time 2020-11-09 Hits4454Downloads361 Comment 0

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