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1. chinaXiv:201707.00079 [pdf]

Comparison of synandrium structure and development in three species from Myristicaceae

Yang, Guifang; Xu, Fengxia
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

Species of Myristicaceae have diverse and distinctive synandria morphology and structure, making them an interesting group for androecium evolution research. To clarify the morphology, structure, and origin of the synandrium, scanning electron microscopy and histology were performed on staminate inflorescences and flowers of Horsfieldia pandurifolia, H. tetratepala, and Myristica fragrans at different developmental stages. A whorl of stamen primordia was initiated rapidly around the margin of the floral apex in groups of two in H. pandurifolia and groups of three in M. fragrans. Each stamen primordium grew longitudinally, producing a pair of anther lobes and four microsporangia, accompanying one vascular bundle in H. pandurifolia and M. fragrans. In H. tetratepala, three stamen primordia groups were formed and each group with several anthers was supported by one vascular bundle, indicating a secondary increase of stamen. Three types of synandria origins were observed—in M. fragrans, the central sterile column tissues originated from the elongate receptacle; in H. pandurifolia and H. tetratepala, they were derived from a combination of floral meristem and fused connectives, and a combination of receptacular tissue and stamen groups. The diverse origins of the central sterile column suggest that the synandrium develops differently and independently in different genera and species of Myristicaceae.

提交时间: 2017年07月12日 点击量:5, 下载量:3

2. chinaXiv:201707.00074 [pdf]

Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX, SO2 and O3 by mature urban plantations based on sap flow measurement

Hu, Yanting; Zhao, Ping; Niu, Junfeng; Sun, Zhenwei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan
分类: 生物学 >> 植物学

Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX (NO, NO2), SO2 and O3 by three mature urban plantations (of Schima superba, Eucalyptus citriodora and Acacia auriculaeformis) were studied using the sap flow-based approach under free atmospheric conditions. The annual mean concentration for NO, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 18.17, 58.05, 12.76 and 42.36 μg•m-3, respectively. The atmospheric concentration exhibited a spring or winter maximum for NO, NO2 and SO2, whereas the concentration maxima for O3 occurred in the autumn. Despite the daytime mean canopy stomatal conductance (GC) being positively related with the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and negatively with the vapour pressure deficit (VPD), the maximal daytime mean GC did not appear when the PAR was at its highest level or the VPD was at its lowest level because a positive correlation was noted between the daytime mean PAR and VPD (P<0.001) under field conditions. The GC value was regulated by the cooperation of the PAR and VPD. When analysing the respective effect of the PAR or VPD on GC separately, a positive logarithmical correlation was noted between the daytime mean GC and PAR as the following equation: G_c=a×lnPAR-b (P<0.01), and the daytime mean GC was negatively logarithmically correlated with the VPD: G_c=G_sref-m×lnVPD (P <0.001). The daytime mean GC declined with decreases in the soil water content (SWC) under similar meteorological condition. Differences in the seasonal pattern of the canopy stomatal conductance and atmospheric concentrations led to a differentiated peak flux. The flux for NO, NO2 and SO2 exhibited a spring maximum, whereas the flux maxima for O3 appeared in the autumn or summer. The annual accumulative stomatal flux for NO, NO2, SO2 and O3 was 100.19±3.76, 510.68±24.78, 748.59±52.81 and 151.98±9.33 mg•m-2•a-1, respectively. When we focus on the foliar uptake of trace gases, the effect of these gases on the vegetation in turn should be considered, particularly for regions with serious air pollution problems. These trace gases had not yet reached injury levels, except for NO2. Flux-based measurements were better suited for evaluating the risk of O3 damage to vegetation than the exposure-based method.

提交时间: 2017年07月12日 点击量:127, 下载量:66

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