所有结果

Stereoscopic PIV Measurements of the Flow Field in a Turbine Cascade

Tian Yangtao; Ma Hongwei; Ma Rong分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

This paper presents experimental measurements of the flow field in a Low-speed Turbine Cascade using a stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (SPIV). During the measurements, a pair of frame-straddling-based CCD cameras were configured at different sides of the laser light sheet, and appropriate tracing particles (DEHS) were employed. The measurements were conducted at the incidence angle of 0 degree and exit Reynolds number of 1.7 x 10(5) with the tip clearance 1.18% of blade chord. The tip flow features, such as the evolution and breakdown of tip leakage vortex, the horseshoe vortex, turbulence characteristics of tip leakage flow, were studied for the flow field analysis. The results showed that the tip leakage flow/vortex mainly dominate flow fields in the tip region. The tip leakage vortex performs as a concentrated vortex before its breaking down and splitting into small vortices. The highest turbulence intensity mainly occurs in the tip region along with the trajectory of tip leakage vortex, and when the vortex breaks down, the turbulence intensity reduces rapidly. Additionally, the SPIV with this configuration also shows an advantage in investigating the flow structures and mechanism inside the turbine cascade. |

An Analysis of the Numerical Model Influence on the Ground Temperature Profile Determination

Jaszczur, Marek; Inga Polepszyc; Aneta Sapińska-Śliwa; Andrzej Gonet2分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

The estimation of the ground temperature profile with respect to the depth and time is the key issue in many engineering applications which use the ground as a source of thermal energy. In the present work, the influence of the model components on the calculated ground temperature distribution has been analysed in order to develop an accurate and robust model for the prediction of the ground temperature profile. The presented mathematical model takes into account all the key phenomena occurring in the soil and on its top surface. The impact of individual model elements on the temperature of the soil has been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model result in a similar temperature variation over the simulation period, but only at a low depth. A detailed analysis shows that a larger depth requires more complex models and the calculation with the use of simple models results in an incorrect temperature and a theoretical COP estimation. |

分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

Using ethanol or acetone as the working fluid, the performance of starting up and heat transfer of closed-loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels (POHP-PC) were experimentally investigated by varying filling ratio, inclination, working fluids and heating power. The performance of the tested pulsating heat pipe was mainly evaluated by thermal resistance and wall temperature. Heating copper block and cold water bath were adopted in the experimental investigations. It was found that oscillating heat pipe with filling ratio of 50% started up earlier than that with 70% when heating input was 159.4 W, however, it has similar starting up performance with filling ratio of 50% as compared to 70% on the condition of heat input of 205.4 W. And heat pipe with filling ratio of 10% could not start up but directly transit to dry burning. A reasonable filling ratio range of 35%-70% was needed in order to achieve better performance, and there are different optimal filling ratios with different heating inputs - the more heating input, the higher optimal filling ratio, and vice versa. However, the dry burning appeared easily with low filling ratio, especially at very low filling ratio, such as 10%. And higher filling ratio, such as 70%, resulted in higher heat transfer ( dry burning) limit. With filling ratio of 70% and inclination of 75, oscillating heat pipe with acetone started up with heating input of just 24W, but for ethanol, it needed to be achieved 68 W, Furthermore, the start time with acetone was similar as compared to that with ethanol. For steady operating state, the heating input with acetone was about 80 W, but it transited to dry burning state when heating input was greater than 160 W. However, for ethanol, the heating input was in vicinity of 160 W. Furthermore, thermal resistance with acetone was lower than that with ethanol at the same heating input of 120 W. |

Interaction of Two Cavitation Bubbles in a Tube and its Effects on Heat Transfer

Liu Bin; Cai Jun; Tao Yuequn; Hum Xiulan; Tao Yuequn分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

When two cavitation bubbles exist in a confined space, the interaction between the bubbles significantly affects the characteristics of bubble dynamic behaviors. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model is established to study the growth and collapse of two cavitation bubbles in a heated tube and its effects on heat transfer. The liquid and gas phases throughout the calculation domain are solved by a set of Navier-Stokes equations. It is assumed that the gas inside the bubble is compressible vapor, and the surrounding liquid is incompressible water. The mass transfer between two phases is ignored. The calculated bubble profiles were compared to the available experimental data, and a good agreement has been achieved. Then, the relationship among the bubble motion, flow field and pressure distributions was analyzed. On this basis, the effects of bubble interaction on the heat transfer between the wall surface and sounding liquid were discussed. It is found that heat transfer in the centre wall region is enhanced owing to the vortex flow and micro-jet induced by the bubble contraction and collapse. In contrast, the highest surface temperature appears in the surrounding region, which is mainly attributed to the thermal resistance induced by the bubble. The present study is helpful to understand the heat transfer phenomenon with cavitation in the liquid. |

Solution of Inverse Heat Conduction Problem using the Tikhonov Regularization Method

Duda, Piotr分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

It is hard to solve ill-posed problems, as calculated temperatures are very sensitive to errors made while calculating "measured" temperatures or performing real-time measurements. The errors can create temperature oscillation, which can be the cause of an unstable solution. In order to overcome such difficulties, a variety of techniques have been proposed in literature, including regularization, future time steps and smoothing digital filters. In this paper, the Tikhonov regularization is applied to stabilize the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem. The impact on the inverse solution stability and accuracy is demonstrated. |

分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

Fluid flow in a screw pump which rotates at very high angular velocity is numerically analyzed. In the present study, fluid flow in screw pumps under high Reynolds number, of the order of 105, is considered. Screw pump has two major elements, a plain shroud which is a stationary element and a rotating hub with helical grooves contained within the shroud. In this paper, three variants of hubs with different number of thread starts numbering six, eight and twelve in combination with a plain shroud is studied. Each of the three possible combinations are analyzed on the basis of pressure rise developed, efficiency and shaft power. It was seen that pressure rise, efficiency and shaft power increases as the number of threads increases in the range of mass flow rates studied. |

分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

Centrifugal pumps are often used in operating conditions where they can be susceptible to premature failure. The cavitation phenomenon is a common fault in centrifugal pumps and is associated with undesired effects. Among the numerous cavitation detection methods, the measurement of suction pressure fluctuation is one of the most used methods to detect or diagnose the degree of cavitation in a centrifugal pump. In this paper, a closed loop was established to investigate the pump cavitation phenomenon, the statistical parameters for PDF (Probability Density Function), Variance and RMS (Root Mean Square) were used to analyze the relationship between the cavitation performance and the suction pressure signals during the development of cavitation. It is found that the statistical parameters used in this research are able to capture critical cavitation condition and cavitation breakdown condition, whereas difficult for the detection of incipient cavitation in the pump. At part-load conditions, the pressure fluctuations at the impeller inlet show more complexity than the best efficiency point (BEP). Amplitude of PDF values of suction pressure increased steeply when the flow rate dropped to 40 m(3)/h (the design flow rate was 60 m(3)/h). One possible reason is that the flow structure in the impeller channel promotes an increase of the cavitation intensity when the flow rate is reduced to a certain degree. This shows that it is necessary to find the relationship between the cavitation instabilities and flow instabilities when centrifugal pumps operate under part-load flow rates. |

分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

The interaction between surge and rotating stall in an axial flow compressor was investigated from the viewpoint of an unsteady inner flow structure. The aim of this study was to identify the key factor that determines the switching phenomenon of a surge cycle. The main feature of the tested compressor is a shock tube connected in series to the compressor outlet through a diaphragm, slits, and a concentric duplex pipe: this system allows surge and rotating stall to be generated by connecting the shock tube with the compressor, or enables the compression plane wave injection. The unsteady characteristics and the internal flow velocity fluctuations were measured in detail, and the stall cell structure was averaged and visualized along the movement of the operation point under a coexisting state of surge. A coefficient of the cell scale fluctuation was calculated using the result of the averaging, and it confirmed that the processes of inner flow structure change differed from each other according to the next cycle of the surge. The result suggests that the key factor that determines the next cycle is the transformation of the internal flow structure, particularly between the stall cell and the entire circumferential stall, in both the recovering and stalling processes. |

Influence of Tip End-plate on Noise of Small Axial Fan

MAO Hongya; WANG Yanping; LIN Peifeng; JIN Yingzi; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Heuy Dong Kim分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

In this work, tip end-plate is used to improve the noise performance of small axial fans. Both numerical simulations and experimental methods were adopted to study the fluid flow and noise level of axial fans. Four modified models and the prototype are simulated. Influences of tip end-plate on static characteristics, internal flow field and noise of small axial fans are analyzed. The results show that on basis of the prototype, the model with the tip end-plate of 2 mm width and changed length achieved best noise performance. The overall sound pressure level of the model with the tip end-plate of 2 mm width and changed length is 2.4 dB less than that of the prototype at the monitoring point in specified far field. It is found that the mechanism of noise reduction is due to the decrease of vorticity variation on the surface of blades caused by the tip end-plate. Compared with the prototype, the static pressure of the model with the tip end-plate of 2 mm width and changed length at design flow rate decreases by 2 Pa and the efficiency decreases by 0.8%. It is concluded that the method of adding tip end-plate to impeller blades has a positive influence on reducing noise, but it may diminish the static characteristics of small axial fan to some extent. |

Numerical Investigation of the Bowed Stator Effects in a Transonic Fan at Low Reynolds Number

HUANG Enliang,; ZHAO Shengfeng; GONG Jianbo; LU Xingen; ZHU Junqiang分类： 动力与电气工程 >> 工程热物理学

The performance of fan stage in a small turbofan engines is significantly affected at high-altitude low Reynolds number. In order to examine the effect of low Reynolds number on the fan stage, 3D numerical simulation method was employed to analyse the performance variations and the underlying flow structure in the fan stage. For the sake of decreasing the influence of low Reynolds number, the different bowed stator airfoils were redesigned and the effect of the modified design was evaluated. |