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1. chinaXiv:201708.00210 [pdf]

The frst discovery of Urmiatherium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Liushu Formation, Linxia Basin

SHI Qin-Qin; WANG Shi-Qi; CHEN Shao-Kun; LI Yi-Kun
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

A new skull of Urmiatherium intermedium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province is described here. U. intermedium is a large Late Miocene bovid with an odd-looking horn apparatus, consisting of a pair of degenerate, closely situated horn-cores, and a large area of exostoses on the frontal and the parietal bones. Plenty of skulls, teeth, and bone fragments of U. intermedium have been reported from North China, but the skull to be described is the first discovery from the Linxia Basin, expanding the geographic distribution of U. intermedium to the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Although Urmiatherium is generally thought to be closely related to Plesiaddax, Hezhengia, Tsaidamotherium, and some other Late Miocene “ovibovines”, the phylogenetic position of Urmiatherium is still in debate. The distribution of Urmiatherium is wide, spanning from Iran to North China. Urmiatherium seldom accompanies with other Late Miocene “ovibovines” in North China, but is accompanied by other bovids like Sinotragus. 报道并描述了一件来自甘肃临夏盆地的中间乌米兽(Urmiatherium intermedium)头骨化石新材料,该材料产自柳树组上部,属于晚中新世晚期杨家山动物群。中间乌米兽是一种大型的晚中新世牛科动物,角心特化,短且呈薄板状,并且在基部相互靠近。在角心前后方的额骨和顶骨上,发育大片赘生骨疣,这些骨疣与角心一起,合称角器。20世纪初,步林报道了中国北方晚中新世地层中的大量中间乌米兽化石,包括产自山西保德和甘肃庆阳的二十多件头骨以及很多破碎的齿列和骨骼。本文报道的乌米兽头骨化石是乌米兽在甘肃临夏盆地的首次发现,将其在中国北方的分布向西扩展到了青藏高原东北缘地带。乌米兽被普遍认为与近旋角羊(Plesiaddax)、和政羊(Hezhengia)和柴达木兽(Tsaidamotherium)等晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物具有较近的亲缘关系,但其系统发育地位仍存有争议。相比其他晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物,乌米兽的分布较广,从伊朗至中国北方都有分布,但它鲜与其他晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物伴生。在临夏盆地,与其伴生的牛科动物目前仅发现中华羚(Sinotragus)一种。

提交时间: 2017年08月11日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:81, 下载量:53

2. chinaXiv:201708.00208 [pdf]

Sciurid remains from the Late Cenozoic fssure-fllings of Fanchang, Anhui, China

QIU Zhu-Ding; JIN Chang-Zhu
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Remains of sciurids from a late Cenozoic fissure in Anhui, China are described. Six taxa, including one new genus and two new species, representing five genera and four tribes in the subfamily Sciurinae are recognized. They are Sciurus sp., Tamias sp., Plesiosciurus zhengi sp. nov., Sciurotamias wangi Qiu, 2002, S. teilhardi Zheng, 1993, and Pseudoratufa wanensis gen. et sp. nov. The material described was collected from four levels of the fissure fillings. On the basis of the fossil content and coloration, the collection is considered to be a mixed sample with elements representing a rather long interval, probably ranging from the Early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The assemblage shows similar traits of the late Cenozoic sciurine faunas from central and southern China, and contains an intriguing genus Pseudoratufa. Characters of the latter’s dentition clearly demonstrate that the new-comer of ratufin is a tree squirrel; Pseudoratufa is probably coeval with the Fanchang hominoid, and with Diatomys and beavers found in this fissure. The joint occurrence of these taxa seems to be indicative of existence of forest biotopes once in this district during the earlier Miocene. 描述了安徽繁昌癞痢山塘口晚新生代裂隙堆积物中发现的松鼠类材料。化石代表松鼠亚科的4个族,共有5属6种,其中包括一个新属和两个新种,即树松鼠族的Sciurus sp., 花鼠族的Tamias sp.和Plesiosciurus zhengi sp. nov., 旱獭族的Sciurotamias wangi Qiu, 2002和S. teilhardi Zheng, 1993, 以及巨松鼠族的Pseudoratufa wanensis gen. et sp. nov.。所研究的材料系混合地采自同一裂隙堆积的4个不同层位,化石的组分可能代表从早中新世至更新世的不同时段。繁昌的这一松鼠组合具有中国中南部晚新生代松鼠动物群的特色,并含有稀奇的Pseudoratufa属。该新属的牙齿形态显示了其树栖松鼠的特征,而且可以归入甚为稀有的巨松鼠族。其遗骸具有与该地点发现的古猿、硅藻鼠和河狸类化石相似的石化和堆积过程,似乎表明这些动物属于时代相同或较接近的群体,它们的共存也说明了繁昌地区在中新世时有过相对湿润的森林生境。

提交时间: 2017年08月11日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:79, 下载量:58

3. chinaXiv:201708.00206 [pdf]

New materials of micromammal fossils from Longyadong Cave in Luonan Basin, Shaanxi, central China

LI Yong-Xiang; HU Song-Mei; WANG She-Jiang; ZHANG Yun-Xiang
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

This paper describes some micromammal fossils which were excavated from the South Longyadong Cave in the Luonan Basin, eastern Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, central China. The fauna include 15 mammals consisting by Scapanulus oweni, Nasillus andersoni, Uropsilinae gen. et sp. indet., Soriculus sp., Ochotona cf. O. alpina, Belomys parapearsoni, Allocricetus ehiki, Proedromys bedfordi, Allophaiomys deucalion, Eospalax sp., Niviventer preconfucianus, Apodemus asianicus, Apodemus sp., Hystrix brachyura subcristata, Trogontherium cuvieri. Among them, the Nasillus andersoni and the Ochotona cf. O. alpina are the newly discovered fossil species. The fossil assemblage characteristics of newly micromammal faunal is similar to the North Longyadong Cave Fauna, and the geological age should not be later than early Middle Pleistocene. It might be a fauna of late Early Pleistocene. But in recent years, the thermoluminescence age of fossiliferous strata corresponding are 356.6±17.8 kaBP, 273.9±13.7 kaBP and 210.5±10.5 kaBP. The fauna is including both the south and the north animals, the animal combination obviously has the characteristics of the transition between the south and the north of China. 描述了1995~1997年东秦岭山地洛南盆地龙牙南洞洞穴遗址中发掘出土的小哺乳动物化石,包括甘肃鼹Scapanulus oweni, 峨眉鼩鼹Nasillus andersoni, 鼩鼹(属种未定) Uropsilinae gen. et sp. indet., 长尾鼩鼱Soriculus sp., 似高山鼠兔Ochotona cf. O. alpina, 偏皮氏毛耳飞鼠Belomys parapearsoni, 艾克氏异仓鼠Allocricetus ehiki, 沟牙田鼠Proedromys bedfordi, 欧洲异费鼠Allophaiomys deucalion, 始鼢鼠Eospalax sp., 先社鼠Niviventer preconfucianus, 亚洲姬鼠Apodemus asianicus, 姬鼠Apodemus sp., 马来豪猪(华南亚种) Hystrix brachyura subcristata, 居氏大河狸Trogontherium cuvieri等。该动物群同时包括南方型和北方型动物,其动物组合具有明显的南北过渡地带的特征。其中峨眉鼩鼹和似高山鼠兔为新发现的化石种。新发现的小哺乳动物化石组合类似于龙牙北洞,显示出比较古老的性质,时代上多为早更新世晚期或中更新世早期,但龙牙南洞遗址含化石地层对应的热释光(TL)年龄结果分别为(356.6±7.8) kaBP, (273.9±3.7) kaBP和(210.5±0.5) kaBP, 最近新的回授光释光(TT-OSL)测年数据进一步验证了热释光测年结果,获得的地层年代亦为距今40~20万年左右。

提交时间: 2017年08月11日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:116, 下载量:72

4. chinaXiv:201708.00205 [pdf]

A skull of Machairodus horribilis and new evidence for gigantism as a mode of mosaic evolution in machairodonts (Felidae, Carnivora)

DENG Tao; ZHANG Yun-Xiang; Zhijie J. TSENG; HOU Su-Kuan
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Sabertooth cats were extinct carnivorans that have attracted great attention and controversy because of their unique dental morphology representing an entirely extinct mode of feeding specialization. Some of them are lion-sized or tiger-sized carnivorans who are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful preys than those of their modern nonsaber-toothed relatives. We report the discovery of a large sabertooth cat skull of Machairodus horribilis from the Late Miocene of northwestern China. It shares some characteristics with derived sabertooth cats, but also is similar to extant pantherines in some cranial characters. A functional morphological analysis suggests that it differed from most other machairodont felids and had a limited gape to hunt smaller preys. Its anatomical features provide new evidence for the diversity of killing bites even within in the largest saber-toothed carnivorans and offer an additional mechanism for the mosaic evolution leading to functional and morphological diversity in sabertooth cats. 剑齿虎是一类绝灭的食肉目动物,由于其独特的牙齿形态代表了已完全消失的特化取食方式而引起了极大的关注和争论。一些剑齿虎是狮子体型或老虎体型的食肉动物,它们被广泛认为能够比其不具剑形犬齿的现代近亲捕杀更大和更强壮的猎物。本文报道在甘肃省晚中新世地层中发现的一具属于恐剑齿虎(Machairodus horribilis)的大型头骨。这件标本的一些特征与进步的剑齿虎相同,但在某些头骨性状上则与现生的豹亚科种类相似。不同于其他大多数剑齿虎,功能形态分析指示该剑齿虎的口部张开程度受到限制,因此只能捕猎相对较小的猎物。这具头骨的解剖特征为证明即使在最大的具剑形犬齿的食肉目动物中也存在捕猎咬杀方式的多样性提供了新的证据,并揭示了在剑齿虎中导致功能和形态多样性镶嵌进化的另一种机制。

提交时间: 2017年08月11日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:112, 下载量:70

5. chinaXiv:201708.00204 [pdf]

A new microraptorine specimen (Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) with a brief comment on the evolution of compound bones in theropods

XU Xing; LI Feng
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Microraptorinae is a recently discovered subgroup of dromaeosaurid theropods, mostly comprising species from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China. Here we describe a new microraptorine specimen from the Jiufotang Formation (the upper section of the Jehol Group) of Dapingfang, Chaoyang, Liaoning, which displays interesting morphological features not previously documented within Microraptorinae. Noteworthy are several osteological features, including dental and ischial ones, which are transitional between the condition of Sinornithosaurus and that of Microraptor. These features highlight the existence of a spectrum of morphological variation between Sinornithosaurus, which is more like a typical dromaeosaurid, and Microraptor, which shares many characteristics with troodontids. However, the taxonomic significance of these variations has not to be fully assessed yet. A feature deserving special mention is the fusion of the pubes to the ilia in this specimen, which has implications for the evolution of compound bones in theropods+. Our preliminary analysis suggests that many compound bones in birds have been formed by sequential fusion of multiple elements in a peramorphic process. 小盗龙亚科是驰龙科兽脚类恐龙中新近发现的一个亚群,多数属种产自中国辽宁西部下白垩统热河群。本文描记一件产自辽宁省朝阳县大平房地区九佛堂组(热河群上段)的小盗龙亚科的新标本,该标本具有一些未曾报道过的有趣形态特征。尤其值得关注的是,一些特征呈现出介于中国鸟龙和小盗龙之间的过渡状态,其中部分来自牙齿和坐骨。这些特征突出显示了在更接近典型驰龙类的中国鸟龙和具有许多伤齿龙科特征的小盗龙之间存在着一系列的形态变异。然而,这些变异特征在分类上的意义尚未得到充分评估。特别值得一提的是该标本中相互愈合的耻骨和肠骨,这一特征有助于阐明复合骨在兽脚类恐龙中的演化模式。初步分析显示许多鸟类的复合骨都是通过在过型形成过程中各组分的顺序愈合形成的。

提交时间: 2017年08月11日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:94, 下载量:57

6. chinaXiv:201708.00190 [pdf]

Small mammal taphonomy of three Miocene localities from Damiao, Nei Mongol, China

Leena SUKSELAINEN; Hannele PELTONEN; Anu KAAKINEN; ZHANG Zhao-Qun
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Predation is the most common cause of death in small mammals. It also causes the greatest modification on their remains. Other postmortem processes, such as weathering, trampling, and transportation all modify bones and contribute to the forming assemblage. Here we examined three Miocene localities from Damiao, Nei Mongol, China with different fluvial subenvironments. The ages span from early Miocene to early late Miocene (ca 21–11.6 Ma). We describe the sedimentary context and taphonomic features of the small mammal assemblages, and identify the responsible agents for the fossil accumulations. Our study reveals predation as primary means of accumulation for all three localities. However, there is overprinting of other means of accumulation such as fluvial transportation and possibly signs of trampling at the two younger localities. Results indicate possibly different predators for all localities; owls for the oldest one, and diurnal birds of prey or mammalian agents for the younger two. We also show that systematic excavation for small mammals can be done, and in this way it may be possible to reduce some of the damage collecting always produces. 捕食是小哺乳动物死亡最常见的原因,也导致被捕食动物遗骸发生明显改变。动物死亡后的风化、踩踏、搬运等过程也会改变动物的骨骼并影响到化石组合的形成。本文研究了内蒙古大庙三个中新世化石地点,时代从早中新世到晚中新世早期(约21~11.6 ma)。通过分析各小哺乳动物化石组合的沉积背景以及埋藏学特征识别化石埋藏的主要成因。结果显示出捕食是三个地点小哺乳动物化石埋藏的基本成因,而在两个年轻的地点中也有流水搬运与可能的踩踏因素的叠加。三个地点可能存在不一样的捕食者:早中新世地点以猫头鹰捕食为主,中、晚中新世地点则以日间活动的鸟类或哺乳类为主要捕食者。研究还显示小哺乳动物的系统发掘是可行的,在一定程度上可以减少采样过程中产生的破坏。

提交时间: 2017年08月10日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:109, 下载量:49

7. chinaXiv:201708.00189 [pdf]

Elephas cf. E. planifrons (Elephantidae, Mammalia) from Upper Siwalik Subgroup of Samba district, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Som Nath KUNDAL ; Gyan BHADUR; Sandeep KUMAR
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

One specimen of Elephas cf. E. planifrons is reported and described here in the present paper. The specimen was recovered from the mudstone horizon underlying the volcanic ash bed exposed near the Nangal village, which is the extension of geochronological dated (2.48 Ma) volcanic ash beds exposed at Barakhetar in the Nagrota Formation of Upper Siwalik Subgroup of Samba district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Based on the crown morphological parameters (plate numbers, molars length and width, crown length, width and height, enamel thickness, dentine thickness, length and width of plates, lamellar frequency, hypsodonty index and cement thickness), the specimen has been identified and is tentatively referred to Elephas cf. E. planifrons (LM3). The recovery of this specimen is of great significance as it extends its upper limit of range zone from 3.6–2.6 to 3.6–2.48 Ma. 报道和描述了一件平额象左侧M3化石。新材料产自Nangal村附近火山灰层之下的泥岩层,该火山灰是出露于查谟-克什米尔桑巴地区Barakhetar上西瓦立克亚群Nagrota组中年龄为2.48 Ma的火山灰层的延伸。根据齿板数,臼齿长和宽,齿冠长、宽和高,釉质和齿质厚度,齿板长和宽,齿脊频率,冠高指数以及白垩质厚度等齿冠形态参数,暂时将之归为Elephas cf. E. planifrons。新材料的发现将该种的分布上限从2.6 Ma提高到2.48 Ma

提交时间: 2017年08月10日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:101, 下载量:60

8. chinaXiv:201708.00188 [pdf]

The morphology of Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo (Pengornithidae: Enantiornithes) and a comparison of aerodynamic function in Early Cretaceous avian tail fans

Jingmai K. O’CONNOR; ZHENG Xiao-Ting; HU Han; WANG Xiao-Li; ZHOU Zhong-He
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

We provide a complete description of the skeletal anatomy of the holotype of Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo, the first enantiornithine to preserve a rectricial fan, suggesting that possibly rectricial bulbs were present in basal members of this clade. Notably, Chiappeavis preserves a primitive palatal morphology in which the vomers reach the premaxillae similar to Archaeopteryx but unlike the condition in the Late Cretaceous enantiornithine Gobipteryx. If rectricial bulbs were present, pengornithid pygostyle morphology suggests they were minimally developed. We estimate the lift generated by the tail fan preserved in this specimen and compare it to the tail fans preserved in other Early Cretaceous birds. Aerodynamic models indicate the tail of Chiappeavis produced less lift than that of sympatric ornithuromorphs. This information provides a possible explanation for the absence of widespread aerodynamic tail morphologies in the Enantiornithes. 契氏鸟(Chiappeavis)是首次发现保存有扇状尾羽的反鸟类,显示出尾羽球茎这一结构在较原始的反鸟类中已经发育。详细描述了巨前颌契氏鸟(C. magnapremaxillo)正型标本的骨骼形态学特征。契氏鸟的腭区形态与始祖鸟(Archaeopteryx)相似,而区别于晚白垩世的反鸟类戈壁鸟(Gobipteryx)。即使具有尾羽球茎,鹏鸟类的尾综骨形态也表明该结构发育较差。估算了在契氏鸟中由扇状尾羽所产生的浮力,并与其他早白垩世鸟类进行对比。结果显示,契氏鸟的扇状尾羽所产生的空气浮力小于同时代生活的今鸟型类,这有可能解释了反鸟类中具有空气动力学功能的尾羽形态普遍缺乏的现象。

提交时间: 2017年08月10日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:86, 下载量:49

9. chinaXiv:201708.00187 [pdf]

Therocephalian (Therapsida) and chroniosuchian (Reptiliomorpha) from the Permo-Triassic transitional Guodikeng Formation of the Dalongkou Section, Jimsar, Xinjiang, China

LIU Jun; Fernando ABDALA
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The Guodikeng Formation encompasses the terrestrial Permo-Triassic transition sequence in China. This formation crops out in the Dalongkou section, Jimsar, Xinjiang where remains of the dicynodonts Jimusaria and Lystrosaurus were found. We are describing here a therocephalian and a chroniosuchian from the Dalongkou section, which are the first records of these groups for the Guodikeng Formation. Diagnostic characters of the new therocephalian, Dalongkoua fuae gen. and sp. nov., include maxillary ventral margin strongly concave in lateral view; incisors spatulated and rounded; incisors and canines with faint serrations; coronoid process of the dentary with a marked external adductor fossa; triangular reflected lamina of the angular with two smooth concavities. Chroniosuchians are represented by several postcranial elements and the vertebral morphology is similar to Bystrowiana and Bystrowiella. These remains are interpreted as representing a Bystrowianidae indeterminate. The new findings increase the diversity of the Guodikeng Formation that is now represented by three or four dicynodonts, one therocephalian and one chroniosuchian. All these groups survived the massive P-T extinction but disappear from the fossil record in the Middle to Upper Triassic. 锅底坑组是重要的二叠—三叠系过渡序列,本组在新疆吉木萨尔大龙口出露广泛,产出吉木萨尔兽以及水龙兽两类二齿兽类。本文报道了在大龙口剖面首次发现的兽头类和迟滞鳄类,这也是此二类群在锅底坑组的首次报道。新发现的兽头类被命名为付氏大龙口兽(Dalongkoua fuae)。其鉴定特征包括上颌骨犬后齿齿槽外边缘向背向凹入;切齿有圆形和匙形;切齿和犬齿有微弱的锯齿;齿骨冠状突有显著的收肌窝;反折翼近三角形,有两个平滑的凹陷。锅底坑组目前有3~4属二齿兽类、1属兽头类和1属迟滞鳄类,这一发现增加了其多样性。这些类群都在二叠纪末的大灭绝中幸存下来,直到中晚三叠世才消失。

提交时间: 2017年08月10日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:67, 下载量:35

10. chinaXiv:201708.00186 [pdf]

First complete fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha)

ZHANG Jiang-Yong; Mark V H WILSON
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

A new species of osteoglossid fish, Scleropages sinensis sp. nov., is described from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, China. The new species was attributed to Scleropages, an extant genus of Osteoglossidae, because it very closely resembles the genus in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales. The new fish is very similar to extant Scleropages except: the nasals do not appear to be ornamented; the sensory pore in the antorbital is large; the posterior infraorbitals are not quite covering the dorsal limb of the preopercle; the posteroventral angle of the preopercle is produced to point; the posteroventral margin of the opercle is concave and the ventral end of the bone is produced to a point; the pectoral fin is very long and extends well behind the beginning of the pelvic fin; the vertebral count is about 46?8; the parapophyses are shorter and the upper and lower caudal rays are nearly as long as the inner rays. The new fish is closer to its Asian neighbor, S. formosus, than to its southern relative, S. leichardti. Scleropages formosus inhabits natural lakes, swamps, flooded forests, and slowly moving, deep parts of rivers with overhanging vegetative cover. It is a carnivorous fish and its food consists mainly of insects, fishes, worms, small amphibians, small mammals, and even birds. S. sinensis may live in the same natural environment and have a similar diet except for the largest items. Sexual dimorphism may exist in S. sinensis. The presumed male has a slimmer and shallower body, a relatively larger head, and a deeper mouth cleft. The discovery of Scleropages sinensis sp. nov. dates the divergence of Scleropages and Osteoglossum to no later than the Early Eocene. 金龙鱼化石的鳞片和骨骼碎片在过去时有报道,但鉴定并非十分可靠,因为在骨舌鱼科鱼类中这些鳞片和骨骼十分相似。首次记述了保存完美的金龙鱼化石,标本产于湖南湘乡下湾铺组和湖北松滋洋溪组,确立为骨舌鱼科金龙鱼属一新种:中华金龙鱼Scleropages sinensis sp. nov.。新种与现生金龙鱼(Scleropages)在头部骨骼、尾骨骼、各鳍的形状和位置以及具有网状鳞片等方面极为相似,因而归入该属。然而,新种在以下特征上不同于金龙鱼的现生种:鼻骨无纹饰,鼻骨上的感觉管显露于沟内,感觉管联合不经过顶骨,翼耳骨侧向加厚,眶前骨上的感觉孔大,眼眶后的眶下骨不完全覆盖前鳃盖骨上支,其宽高比例为0.75而非现生种的1?.2, 前鳃盖骨后下角变尖,鳃盖骨后下缘凹形、下端变尖,匙骨背突长大,脊椎46?8, 椎体横突短小,胸鳍十分长大,上下两端的尾鳍条和内部鳍条等长。亚洲的现生种发现于各种河流和小溪中,比较喜欢水草茂盛的静水环境,一般游弋于表层水中,以鱼虾、昆虫等为食,新种中华金龙鱼也应该有相似的生长环境和食性。新种似具有性二形性,雄鱼体形略纤细,头部略大,口裂更深。中华金龙鱼化石的发现,说明金龙鱼属(Scleropages)和骨舌鱼属(Osteoglossum)在早始新世以前就已经分化,这对解释骨舌鱼类的跨洋分布具有十分重要的意义。

提交时间: 2017年08月10日 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量:92, 下载量:44

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