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1. chinaXiv:201712.00001 [pdf]

孤独症脑自发活动动态性及其整合的异常机制

鲁彬; 陈骁; 李乐; 沈杨千; 陈宁轩; 梅婷; 周会霞; 刘靖; 严超赣
分类: 心理学 >> 医学心理学

孤独症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD)是一种病因未明,发病率较高的神经发育疾病。目前大多数静息态功能磁共振(Resting-state fMRI, R-fMRI)研究仅考察了ASD患者脑活动的静态特征,忽视了动态特征。近期研究发现,不同R-fMRI局部指标的动态性之间存在一致性。本研究基于ASD公开数据库,使用滑动时间窗方法系统计算了716名ASD患者和755名健康对照被试的主流R-fMRI局部指标的动态性及R-fMRI局部指标之间的一致性动态特征,并考察了这些指标与ASD行为指标之间的关系。我们发现ASD患者在外侧额叶呈现出动态性显著升高,该现象几乎在所有指标的动态性中都有体现。我们也发现ALFF的动态性在默认网络关键脑区,如后扣带回/楔前叶呈现下降。在进一步考察了这些指标之间的一致性动态特征后,发现ASD患者的平均一致性动态特征显著低于健康对照组被试,表现出显著下降的功能整合能力。我们的结果表明ASD患者存在着脑自发活动动态性及其整合的异常。

提交时间: 2017-11-30 点击量75下载量27 评论 0

2. chinaXiv:201711.00276 [pdf]

DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging

Chao-Gan Yan; Xin-Di Wang; Xi-Nian Zuo; Yu-Feng Zang
分类: 心理学 >> 应用心理学

Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.

提交时间: 2017-11-06 点击量74下载量54 评论 0

3. chinaXiv:201711.00277 [pdf]

Linear trend of resting-state fMRI time series

Xin-Di Wang; Chao-Gan Yan; Yu-Feng Zang
分类: 心理学 >> 应用心理学

Although爈inear trend removing has often been implemented as a routine preprocessing step in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data analysis, the爏patial distribution爋f the magnitude of linear trend is still unclear. Further, it is interesting whether there will be any difference of the linear trend magnitude between different resting-states. For the first aim, we analyzed 5 RS-fMRI datasets from 5 different scanners (namely Beijing-Simens-3T, Cambridge-Siemens-3T, CCBD-GE750-3T, Milwaukee-GE-3T, and Oulu-GE-1.5T). One-sample t-tests on the regression coefficient (i.e., the magnitude of linear trend) were performed for each datasets. For the second aim, we used 2 datasets in each of which different states were compared, one containing eyes-open resting-state (EO-RS) vs. eyes-closed resting-state (EC-RS) and the other containing two steady-state tasks, i.e.,爎eal-time finger force feedback�RT-FFF) and sham finger force feedback (S-FFF) tasks. Paired t-tests were performed between EO-RS and EC-RS, and between RT-FFF and S-FFF. One-sample t-tests showed that the spatial pattern of linear trend of RS-fMRI time series were quite different between different manufactures. The 3T SIEMENS scanners showed positive linear trend in almost all part of the brain, while GE scanners showed primarily negative linear trend in most part of the brain. Paired t-tests showed some differences between paired conditions; differences between EO-RS and EC-RS were mainly in cuneus and eyeballs, and differences between RT-FFF and S-FFF were found in the thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and right sensorimotor cortex. The current study indicated that, while the manufacturer-dependent linear trend of RS-fMRI time series were mostly scanner-related noise, the linear trend may also be physiological noise (eyeballs) or even physiologically meaningful, especially during steady-state tasks.

提交时间: 2017-11-06 点击量36下载量21 评论 0

4. chinaXiv:201711.00278 [pdf]

PRN: a preprint service for catalyzing R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies

Chao-Ganyan; Qingyang Li; Lei Gao
分类: 心理学 >> 实验心理学

Sharing drafts of scientific manuscripts on preprint hosting services for early exposure and pre-publication feedback is a well-accepted practice in fields such as physics, astronomy, or mathematics. The field of neuroscience, however, has yet to adopt the preprint model. A reason for this reluctance might partly be the lack of central preprint services for the field of neuroscience. To address this issue, we announce the launch of Preprints of the R-fMRI Network (PRN), a community funded preprint hosting service. PRN provides free-submission and free hosting of manuscripts for resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) and neuroscience related studies. Submissions will be peer viewed and receive feedback from readers and a panel of invited consultants of the R-fMRI Network. All manuscripts and feedback will be freely available online with citable permanent URL for open-access. The goal of PRN is to supplement the “peer reviewed” journal publication system – by more rapidly communicating the latest research achievements throughout the world. We hope PRN will help the field to embrace the preprint model and thus further accelerate R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies, eventually enhancing human mental health.

提交时间: 2017-11-06 点击量58下载量31 评论 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.00275 [pdf]

Reliability of sleep deprivation-associated spontaneous brain activity and behavior

Lei Gao; Lijun Bai; Yuchen Zhang; Xi-jian Dai; Rana Netra; Youjiang Min; Fuqing燴hou; Honghan Gong; Ming Zhang; Yijun Liu
分类: 心理学 >> 应用心理学

Recent studies have indicated that sleep deprivation (SD) alters intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the resting brain, mainly focusing on the default mode network (DMN) and its anticorrelated network (ACN). These networks hold key functions in segregating internally and externally directed awareness. However, far less attention has been paid to investigation of the altered amplitude of these low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at the whole-brain level and more importantly by what extent the sleep-deprived resting brain pattern can be reproducible and predict individual behavioral performance. The aim of this study was to characterize more clearly the influence of sleep on the whole brain level of ALFF changes and its relation with the performance of a lexical decision task in the sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy participants underwent fMRI three times: once after a normal night of sleep in the rested wakefulness (RW) state and two following approximately 24 h of total SD separated by an interval of two weeks (SD1 and SD2). Our behavioral results showed that sleep stabilizes performance whereas two sleep deprivation even at an interval of two weeks consistently deteriorates it. Sleep deprivation attenuated the ALFF mainly in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). By contrast, the enhanced ALFF emerged in the left sensorimotor cortex (SMA), visual cortex and left fusiform gyrus. Conjunction analysis of SD1 and SD2 versus the control maps and voxel-wise ICC analysis revealed that these SD induced ALFF changes showed a significantly high reliability (ICC>0.5). Particularly, the attenuation of the right IPL presents a significant negative relation with the behavior performance and can be reproducible for two SD at an interval of two weeks. Our results suggest that ALFF is a stable measure in study of SD, and the right IPL may represent a stable biomarker that responds to sleep loss.

提交时间: 2017-11-06 点击量34下载量24 评论 0

6. chinaXiv:201711.00274 [pdf]

Concordance Among Indices of Intrinsic Brain Function:Inter-Individual Variation and Temporal Dynamics Perspectives

Chao-Gan Yan; Zhen Yang; Stanley J. Colcombe; Xi-Nian Zuo; Michael P. Milham
分类: 心理学 >> 实验心理学

Various resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures have been developed to characterize intrinsic brain activity. While each of these measures has gained a growing presence in the literature, questions remain regarding the common and unique aspects these indices capture. The present work provided a comprehensive examination of inter-individual variation and intra-individual temporal variation for commonly used measures, including fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, regional homogeneity, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, network centrality and global signal correlation. Regardless of whether examining intra-individual or inter-individual variation, we found that these definitionally distinct R-fMRI indices tend to exhibit a relatively high degree of covariation. When taken as a measure of intrinsic brain function, inter-individual differences in concordance for R-fMRI indices appeared to be stable, and negatively related to age (i.e., functional concordance among indices decreases with age). To understand the functional significance of concordance, we noted that higher concordance was generally associated with higher strengths of R-fMRI indices, regardless of whether looking through the lens of inter-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance participants) or intra-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance states identified via temporal dynamic analyses) differences. Finally, temporal dynamics analyses also revealed that high concordance states are characterized by increased within- and between-network functional connectivity, suggesting more general variations in network integration and segregation. The current study draws attention to questions regarding how to select an R-fMRI index for usage in a given study, as well as how to compare findings across studies that examine inter-individual or group differences using different indices. Additionally, our work suggests global neural signals exist in the brain, and their spontaneous variations over time result in fluctuations in the connectedness of brain regions.

提交时间: 2017-11-06 点击量45下载量31 评论 0

7. chinaXiv:201710.00010 [pdf]

Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP)i: Growing Up in China

Ning Yang; Ye He; Zhe Zhang; Hao-Ming Dong; Lei Zhang; Xing-Ting Zhu; Xiao-Hui Hou; Yin-Shan Wang; Quan Zhou; Zhu-QingGong; Li-Zhi Cao; Ping Wang; Yi-Wen Zhang; Dan-Yang Sui; TingXu1; Gao-Xia Wei; Zhi Yang; Lili Jiang; Hui-Jie Li; Ting-YongFeng
分类: 心理学 >> 实验心理学

Abstract: To face the challenges of keeping healthy in increasing population sizes of both ageing and developing people in China, a fundamental request from the public health is the development of lifespan normative trajectories of brain and behavior. This paper introduces the Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP 2013–2022), a large-scale tenyear program of modeling brain and behavioral trajectories for human lifespan (6–85 years old). We plan to gradually collect the behavioral and brain imaging data at ages across the lifespan on nationwide and depict the normal trajectory of Chinese brain development across the lifespan, based on the accelerated longitudinal design in the coming next 10 years starting at 2013. Various psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated highly relevant to abnormal events during the neurodevelopment regarding their onset ages of first episodes. Therefore, delineation of normative growth curves of brain and cognition in typically developing children is extremely useful for monitoring, early detecting and intervention of various neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we detailed the developing part of CCNP, devCCNP. It tracked 192 healthy children and adolescents (6–18 years old) in Beibei district of Chongqing for the first 5 years of the full CCNP cohort (2013–2017). To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the longterm follow-up of CCNP, we here comprehensively document devCCNP in terms of its experimental design, sample strategies, data acquisition and storage as well as some preliminary results and data sharing roadmap for future. Specifically, we first describe the accelerated longitudinal sampling design as well as its exact ratio of sample dropping off during the data collection. Second, we present several initial findings such as canonical growth curves of cortical surface areas of a set of well-established large-scale functional networks of the human brain. Finally, together with records generated by many psychological and behavioral tests, we will provide an individual growing-up report for each family participating the program, initiating the potential guidance on the individual academic and social development. The resources introduced in the current work can provide first-hand data for a series of coming Chinese brain development studies, such as Chinese Standard MRI Brain Templates, Normative Growth Curves of Chinese Brain and Cognition as well as Mapping of Language Areas in Chinese Developing Brain. These would not only offer normative references of the atypical brain and cognition development for Chinese population but also serve as a strong force on accelerating the pace of integrating Chinese brain development into the national brain program or Chinese Brain Project.

提交时间: 2017-10-13 点击量637下载量91 评论 0

8. chinaXiv:201709.00120 [pdf]

贝叶斯因子及其在JASP中的实现

胡传鹏; 孔祥祯; Eric-Jan Wagenmakers; Alexander Ly; 彭凯平
分类: 心理学 >> 心理统计

统计推断在科学研究中起到关键作用,然而当前科研中最常用的经典统计方法——零假设检验(Null hypothesis significance test, NHST)却因为难以正确理解而被滥用或误用。有研究者提出使用贝叶斯因子(Bayes factor)作为是一种替代和(或)补充的统计方法。贝叶斯因子是贝叶斯统计中用来进行模型比较和假设检验的重要方法,这一方法对于心理学及相关领域的大部分研究者来说仍然比较陌生。因此,本文介绍了贝叶斯因子的基本思路,并总结了贝叶斯因子与NHST相比的优势。在此基础上,以贝叶斯独立样本t检验为例,演示如何在开放的统计软件JASP中实现贝叶斯因子的计算,并解释了对贝叶斯因子结果的解读。最后,对贝叶斯因子的不足及其应用价值进行了讨论。

提交时间: 2017-09-27 点击量3864下载量1375 评论 0

9. chinaXiv:201709.00019 [pdf]

“一带一路”沿线国家或地区的个人主义文化地图

吴胜涛; 周阳; 朱廷劭
分类: 心理学 >> 社会心理学

目的 随着文化心理学和大数据分析技术的发展,绘制区域内不同国家或地区的文化地图、进而预测其行为价值观。 方法 利用社交媒体结合世界价值观(World Value Survey WVS)数据库建立个人主义对个性解放与社会信任的预测模型。 结果 “一带一路”沿线国家或地区在独立性、独特性这等个人主义文化指标上存在较大的变异。 局限 自主、选择、言论自由等个性解放价值观以及针对陌生人、外国人的普遍信任及则不能通过个人主义指标来预测。 结论 “一带一路”沿线国家或地区的文化是多样的,我们可以通过社交媒体计算的个人主义指标来快速预测相应国家或地区的价值观与社会信任指标。

提交时间: 2017-09-13 点击量710下载量254 评论 0

10. chinaXiv:201706.00761 [pdf]

神经成像偏见及其心理机制

殷继兴; 胡传鹏; 彭凯平
分类: 心理学 >> 法制心理学

神经成像的结果是否能够作为科学证据被呈现在法庭之上是一个有争议的问题。先前的研究发现,神经成像结果的大脑图片可能会让人们过度地信任其所支持的结论,这种过度信任被称为神经成像偏见(neuroimage bias)。但是,后续的研究却要么未能重复出早期研究的结果,要么发现神经成像偏见仅在某些特定的条件下出现。对这些研究的分析表明,神经成像对人们态度和决策产生影响的心理机制并不在于大脑图像的生动性,而可能是受到神经成像结果的科学性以及其他中介变量的调节。未来的研究需要进一步考察神经成像偏见效应的可重复性及其跨文化的普适性。

提交时间: 2017-07-31 点击量1135下载量333 评论 0

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