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1. chinaXiv:201710.00003 [pdf]

Development and applications of paleontological computed tomography

WANG Yan-Fang; WEI Cun-Feng; QUE Jie-Min; ZHANG Wen-Ding; SUN Cui-Li; SHU Yan-Feng; HOU Ye-Mao; ZHANG Jiu-Chang; SHI Rong-Jian; WEI Long
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The traditional serial grinding method used to investigate the internal structure of fossils cannot be readily applied to valuable fossil specimens due to its destructive and time-consuming nature. Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal non-destructive technique for investigating the internal structure of fossils, in which thousands of serial images are obtained and used to produce an accurate reconstruction of the internal morphology. This paper reviews the design, development and applications of the first CT system in China dedicated exclusively to scanning fossils. The 225 kV three-dimensional (3D) fossil micro-CT (225-3D-μCT) is capable of high-resolution volumetric imaging, with a resolution up to 5 μm, and can accommodate specimens measuring up to 100 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length. The 450 kV ordinary fossil CT (450-TY-ICT) can produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images of specimens ranging up to 800 mm in diameter and 1000 mm in length, with a resolution up to 200 μm. Two paleontological CT facilities represent a high-performance platform offering the functional diversity needed to meet the demands of studying fossils at a variety of different scales. The two machines have become indispensable for paleontological research in China.

提交时间: 2017-10-09 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量556, 下载量316

2. chinaXiv:201709.00121 [pdf]

New fossils of paraceratheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Early Oligocene of the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province, China

LI Yong-Xiang; ZHANG Yun-Xiang; LI Ji; LI Zhi-Chao; XIE Kun
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

描述了在兰州盆地渐新统韩家井组底部的黄砂层中新发现的巨犀化石:黄河巨犀(Paraceratherium huangheense sp. nov.) (新种), 该化石产出层位的古地磁年龄为距今31.5Ma。新种主要特征为:P2之前无齿槽痕迹,一对下门齿粗壮,互相靠近,向前平伸且略微上翘,下颏孔位于p3之下,水平支下缘平直, p2前的齿隙部分向上隆起,下颌角圆钝,上升支后缘斜向后上方,齿式: ?·?·3·3/1·0·3·3。除个体较大、下颌后缘有所不同之外,其下颌的总体特征与巴基斯坦的Paraceratherium bugtiense最为接近,显示两者可能具有较近的亲缘关系。新标本的发现为确定经典的Dera Bugti地点产大巨犀化石层位的年代提供了新的证据,并为青藏高原的隆升讨论提供了新的哺乳动物化石证据。

提交时间: 2017-09-28 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量451, 下载量116

3. chinaXiv:201709.00122 [pdf]

Introduction to terminologies of tooth enamel microstructures and a proposal for their standard Chinese translations

MAO Fang-Yuan; LI Chuan-Kui; MENG Jin; LI Qian; BAI Bin; WANG Yuan-Qing; ZHANG Zhao-Qun; ZHAO Ling-Xia; WANG Ban-Yue
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Tooth enamel is composed of elongated, hexagonal crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Some crystallites are arranged into various regual structures and futher formed a composite structure in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical system can provide a basis for analysis different levels of structural complexity from varitaiton of particular crystallite strucutes to variation of structural types throughout a individual’s dentition. The size, orientation, distribution and the packing patterns of crystallites are gene-comtrolled and have limited range of intraspecific variability. Thus, these microstructures provide considerable and reliable morphological characters that help understanding of external dental morphology in context of both phylogeny and function in vertebrates. Because teeth are highly resistant to weathering, mainly owing to their enamel covering, so that they were commonly preserved as fossils. This organic system, particularly their microstructures, has attracted more and more attention from vertebrate paleontologists and other morphologists. However, as already recognized by many previous studies, some terminologies of the enamel microstructures have been complex and used inconsistently. Although considerable effort has been made to study enamel microstructures in China during the last few decades, a standard terminology of enamel microstructures in Chinese has not be formally brought into line with that in English literatures. Here we intend to introduce and systematize the relevant terminology used in the study of enamel microstructures and translate them into Chinese, in hoping that this systematic effort will enhance researches of enamel microstructures in China. 脊椎动物牙齿釉质显微结构具丰富的形态学特征,承载着系统发育和生物力学等方面的信息。本文在前人的研究基础上,试图系统地介绍牙釉质显微结构的基本内容,提出牙釉质研究中相关术语的中文译名建议,并对一些重要术语做了简要解释,供相关研究者参考,以期促进牙釉质显微结构研究的进一步发展。

提交时间: 2017-09-28 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量416, 下载量225

4. chinaXiv:201708.00371 [pdf]

Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy reveals histology and internal structure of Galeaspida (Agnatha)

分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) is a powerful non-destructive method in paleontology, providing ultra-high-resolution 3D insights into the internal structure of fossils. Employing SRXTM, the skull specimens of Shuyu zhejiangensis, a 428 million-year-old galeaspid from the Silurian of Changxing, Zhejiang Province, are investigated. The subsequent analyses indicate that the endoskeletal skull of S. zhejiangensis is composed wholly of cartilage without convincing evidence for the presence of perichondral bone. The cranial anatomy of S. zhejiangensis are unusually preserved in three dimensions largely due to the non-random decay of the cartilaginous braincase and its connecting ‘soft’ tissues. Using Amira or Avizo software, seven virtual 3D endocasts of the skull of S. zhejiangensis were created revealing the gross internal cranial anatomy of galeaspids in great detail for the first time. The preliminary results indicate that during evolution the galeaspid head experienced a fundamental reorganization resulting in the development of jaws. 同步辐射X射线断层显微成像已经成为古生物研究中一种新的重要手段,能够在不损坏化石的前提下,提供化石内部超高分辨率的三维成像。利用瑞士光源最先进的同步辐射X射线断层显微成像技术,研究分析了七个采自浙江长兴志留系(约4.28亿年前)的早期盔甲鱼类浙江曙鱼三维立体保存脑颅化石。同步辐射X射线显微成像结果显示:盔甲鱼脑颅完全由软骨组成,并没有软骨外成骨存在的证据;盔甲鱼脑颅解剖结构能够被精细的保存下来,很大程度上归功于脑颅软骨与周围软组织在埋藏过程中的异时分解。利用AMIRA或AVIZO等计算机三维虚拟复原软件,三维虚拟复原了七个曙鱼脑颅模型,首次揭示出盔甲鱼脑颅内部详细的解剖结构。初步研究结果显示盔甲鱼的脑颅已经发生了显著的重组,具备了颌发育所必需的先决条件。

提交时间: 2017-08-29 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量476, 下载量127

5. chinaXiv:201708.00336 [pdf]

Morphological coevolution of the pygostyle and tail feathers in Early Cretaceous birds

WANG Wei; Jingmai K. O'CONNOR
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The transformation from a long reptilian tail to a shortened tail ending in a pygostyle and accompanied by aerodynamic fanning rectrices is one of the most remarkable adaptations of early avian evolution. However, no fossils directly capture this transition, and information regarding the structural morphology and the early evolution of the pygostyle in Mesozoic birds and their integuments is relatively limited. Here we provide a review of the pygostyle morphology of Early Cretaceous birds with comparison to the structure in living birds. This study emphasizes the convergent evolution of distally co-ossified caudal vertebrae in non-avian maniraptorans and early birds. There further exist distinct differences in pygostyle morphology between Sapeornithiformes, Confuciusornithiformes, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The morphology of the pygostyle and rectrices in early ornithuromorphs appear similar to that of extant birds, whereas the pygostyle in more primitive birds does not appear morphologically capable of supporting the rectricial bulbs and musculature necessary to control an aerodynamic fan-shaped tail. The rectricial bulbs and rectricial fan appear to have coevolved with the plough-shaped pygostyle early in the evolution of the Ornithuromorpha. This study also shows that the confuciusornithiform pygostyle was more similar to that of enantiornithines than previously recognized, consistent with the presence of nearly identical ornamental tail feathers in both groups. 从兽脚类恐龙中爬行类的骨质长尾,到以尾综骨为终端,并附着具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽的短巧尾部,是早期鸟类演化中最显著的适应性转变之一。但能直接反映这一转变的化石记录匮乏,而且对中生代鸟类尾部形态结构,以及尾综骨和尾羽早期演化的认知也相对不足。在此对早白垩世鸟类的尾综骨形态予以概述并将其与现生鸟类尾部结构类比。本研究强调了非鸟手盗龙类中尾椎的联合骨化与早期鸟类的尾综骨实属趋同演化。本研究表明,会鸟形类、孔子鸟形类、反鸟类和今鸟型类的尾综骨结构存在明显差异。今鸟型类尾综骨和尾羽(舵羽)与现代鸟类的相似,而相对更原始的鸟类的尾综骨,从形态来看,并不能支持舵羽球状膨大和必要的肌肉附着来操控具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽。由此可见,舵羽球状膨大、舵羽扇面与犁铧状的尾综骨是在今鸟型类演化早期相伴相生的。相对于从前的认知,本研究还发现孔子鸟类的尾综骨与反鸟类的有更多相似之处,与二者都具有的几乎相同的装饰性尾羽相符合。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量310, 下载量92

6. chinaXiv:201708.00335 [pdf]

A new species of Brontotheriidae from the Middle Eocene of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China

Li Shuo
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

A new species of large Irdinmanhan brontothere, Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov., is described based on an incomplete skull which was collected from the Üqbulak Formation of Sangequan site, Junggar Basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new specimen can be assigned to the genus Epimanteoceras by the large superorbital processes, the broad frontal bone, the shallow central fossae on the molars, and the absence of the anterolingual cingular cusp on molars and the hypocone on M3. E. mae is characterized by the slightly laterally bowed zygomatic arches, the medially arched parasagittal ridges, the posteromedially angled external auditory pseudomeatus, and the prominent occipital pillar processes. E. mae and E. formosus are closely related. It is uncertain whether E. mae or E. formosus forms the sister group to Brontotheriina, but both of them are the basal group of the latter in the phylogenetic analysis. They are both closed to the Irdinmanhan brontothere Protitan grangeri from Nei Mongol but much primitive than Aktautitan hippopotamopus from Kazakhstan. The discovery of E. mae in Sangequan indicates that the age of Üqbulak Formation is Middle Eocene, and earlier than that of Kyzylbulak Formation bearing A. hippopotamopus in Kazakhstan. Moreover, the discovery of E. mae in Xinjiang expanded the distribution of the genus Epimanteoceras, which was only found in Nei Mongol previously. 新疆准噶尔盆地三个泉中始新世依希白拉组内发现的晚叉额雷兽属新种-马氏晚叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov.)是新疆目前发现保存最好的雷兽头骨化石。标本为一件不完整的头骨,缺失鼻骨,前颌骨,部分上颌骨和泪骨。新种具有眶上突较粗大,额骨宽阔平坦,臼齿有中心窝,臼齿舌侧齿带前部上的齿尖不发育,M3无次尖等晚叉额雷兽属的特征。新种的颧弓成向外扩的弓形,额顶嵴在后侧向内收缩弯曲的弧度更大,外耳道较为倾斜,枕柱上方有舌状的突起,与唯一的属型种娇晩叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras formosus)明显不同。马氏晚叉额雷兽同属型种关系最近,两者在系统发育分析中同为雷兽亚族(Brontotheriina)的基干类群,但是两者是否为后者的姊妹类群尚无法确定。和属型种一样,马氏晚叉额雷兽在演化程度上与内蒙古伊尔丁曼哈期的谷氏原雷兽(Protitan grangeri)接近,但与同时期地理位置更近的哈萨克斯坦的雷兽Aktautitan hippopotamopus相比,马氏晚叉额雷兽较原始,表明新种所在的地层时代很可能要早于发现A. hippopotamopus地层。三个泉剖面依希白拉组伊尔丁曼哈期内以前发现的化石较少,此次马氏晚叉额雷兽的发现,不仅扩大了晚叉额雷兽属的地理分布,亦为依希白拉组内存在伊尔丁曼哈期的沉积提供了新的佐证。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量287, 下载量68

7. chinaXiv:201708.00334 [pdf]

New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan, China

LIU Yu-Hai; GAI Zhi-Kun; ZHU Min
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) including Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov., an indeterminate polybranchiaspid, Eugaleaspis changi, and Nanpanaspis microculus are described from the lower part of the Xishancun Formation (early Lochkovian, Early Devonian) near the northeast entrance of Liaokuo Park, Qujing City, Yunnan Province, China. The Polybranchiaspis-like new genus is characterized by a blade-like median dorsal ridge on the dorsal side of head-shield. The morphological disparity of the median dorsal ridge and spine in galeaspids suggests that these structures functioned more than providing a hydrodynamic stability. We assume that a high upright and compressed spine may render galeaspid fishes an apparently larger size as seen by a predator, and a blade-like median dorsal ridge may accomplish a defense against the claws of large sea scorpions. Nanpanaspis is peculiar in bearing two short laterally projecting processes on each side of the head-shield, and its phylogenetic relationship is discussed based on different interpretations on the homology of these processes. Considering the unique morphology of Nanpanaspis, and its early occurrence among the Huananaspiformes, we assign Nanpanaspis in the monogeneric family Nanpanaspidae to represent an early branch of the Huananaspiformes. 本文描述了云南曲靖早泥盆世西山村组盔甲鱼类(无颌类)的新发现,包括一新属、新种——惠清驼背鱼(Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov.), 一件属种未定的多鳃鱼科标本,以及张氏真盔甲鱼(Eugaleaspis changi)和小眼南盘鱼(Nanpanaspis microculus)的新材料。驼背鱼在很多方面跟多鳃鱼都非常相似,但头甲背面具一特征性的驼背状隆起,其上有一刀刃状的中背脊。中背脊和中背棘在盔甲鱼类里的形态分异度表明:它们除了能够提供游泳方向稳定性外,可能衍生出了一些附加的功能,例如直立高耸的中背棘能使盔甲鱼在捕食者眼里具有了恐吓性,刀刃状的中背脊可能也起到一些防御的作用。南盘鱼头甲侧缘具有两对非常奇特的侧向延伸的突起;通过对这两对侧突同源性的比较,讨论了南盘鱼的潜在系统分类位置。鉴于南盘鱼奇特的形态,以及它在华南鱼目中相对较早的出现时代,建议暂时把南盘鱼放到一个单属科南盘鱼科,代表了华南鱼目早期分出来的一个支系。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量298, 下载量75

8. chinaXiv:201708.00333 [pdf]

Cranial and dental material of Gomphotherium wimani (Gomphotheriidae, Proboscidea) from the Middle Miocene of the Linxia Basin, northwestern China

YANG Xiang Wen; LI Yu ; WANG Shi-Qi
分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

嵌齿象是真象的基干类群,其研究历来受到重视,同时也存在很多争议。维曼嵌齿象(Gomphotherium wimani)是中国的一个特有种,之前仅有一些牙齿和破碎下颌的报道,研究者对其形态特征和演化地位的认识一直比较模糊。本文报道了发现于甘肃省临夏盆地的维曼嵌齿象的新材料,包括上沟地点一件未成年头骨和倒黑沟地点属于同一个体的部分颊齿。通过研究对比,认为维曼嵌齿象是嵌齿象中一个比较进步的种,具有如下独有特征:颊齿的主齿柱前后中心小尖分裂并成嵴状,副齿柱趋向于分裂,发育有弱的副齿柱中心小尖,齿谷中等开阔,齿冠相对较高。对过去发现的维曼嵌齿象材料的厘定表明,该种最初建立时产于泉头沟地点的一颗m3实际上是葛氏铲齿象(Platybelodon grangeri)的M3; 而西宁吊沟地点发现的维曼嵌齿象的一件M3极有可能属于铲齿象类(amebelodontids)。对厘定后的维曼嵌齿象地点的研究表明,维曼嵌齿象分布于中国甘肃、青海的几个中中新统地点,其时代基本上可以与MN6−MN7/8早期相对比,时代跨度估计为15~13 Ma。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量284, 下载量63

9. chinaXiv:201708.00332 [pdf]

Paleoecology of Cenozoic rhinos from northwest China: a stable isotope perspective

分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

The diets and environments of fossil rhinocerotoids from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China, ranging in age from 25 to 2.5 Ma, were reconstructed based on bulk and serial carbon (C) and oxygen (O) isotope analyses of tooth enamel. The results support many previous hypotheses inferred from dentition and cranial and limb morphology and offer new insight on the paleoecology of some genera. The isotopic results support the following previous hypotheses: the Late Oligocene rhino Paraceratherium inhabited a forested environment, and the coexisting rhino Allacerops lived in a relatively open habitat and had a less specialized diet; the Middle Miocene Hispanotherium grazed in open territory, whereas the contemporaneous Alicornops had a more generalized diet in a forested environment; and the Late Miocene rhino Parelasmotherium grazed in an open steppe habitat. The isotope data indicate that the rhinos Acerorhinus and Dicerorhinus inhabited open steppe environments, inconsistent with previous inferences that these two rhinos dwelled in forested environments. The isotopic results are not conclusive concerning the habitat of Iranotherium, but support previous hypotheses that this rhino was a specialized C3 grazer. The results also suggest that Chilotherium was a forest-dweller throughout much of the Late Miocene, but occupied a more open environment by the end of the Late Miocene. Additionally, the results are consistent with previous hypotheses that the Pliocene rhino Shansirhinus and the Pleistocene rhino Coelodonta were grazers in open habitats. Finally, the C isotope data support that all rhinos in this study were pure C3 feeders, confirming that C4 grasses were not an important component of the plant biomass in the Linxia Basin from 25 to 2.5 Ma. 根据牙齿釉质的全样和系列碳、氧同位素分析,重建了甘肃临夏盆地25~2.5Ma期间犀牛的食性和环境。其结果支持先前根据牙齿和头骨-肢骨形态做出的一些推断,并对部分属的古生态提出了新的看法。同位素结果支持如下的推断:晚渐新世的巨犀Paraceratherium生活于森林环境,而与其共生的异角犀Allacerops栖息地相对开阔,食性特化程度低;中中新世的西班牙犀Hispanotherium在开阔领地上取食草本植物,而同时代的奇角犀Alicornops在森林环境中具有更特化的食性;晚中新世的副板齿犀Parelasmotherium在开阔的稀树草原上取食草本植物。与先前认为无鼻角犀Acerorhinus和额鼻角犀Dicerorhinus生活于森林化环境的推断不同,数据指示这两种犀牛也生活于开阔的稀树草原环境。同位素结果未能得出伊朗犀Iranotherium的确切生活环境,但支持先前认为它特化为C3草本植物取食者的推断。研究结果也显示大唇犀Chilotherium在晚中新世的大多数时间内是森林生活者,但其在晚中新世末期占据了更开阔的环境。此外,分析结果与先前的推断一致,即上新世的山西犀Shansirhinus和更新世的披毛犀Coelodonta是开阔生活环境中的食草者。最后,碳同位素数据支持在此项研究中的所有犀牛都是纯C3取食者,确认C4植物不是临夏盆地从25Ma到2.5Ma期间植被的重要成分。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量294, 下载量73

10. chinaXiv:201708.00331 [pdf]

Restudy of Regalerpeton weichangensis (Amphibia: Urodela) from the Lower Cretaceous of Hebei, China

分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学

Regalerpeton weichangensis was established in 2009 on an incomplete skeleton preserved mainly as an impression from the Lower Cretaceous of Hebei, China. However, several anatomical characters were misinterpreted due to distortion of the holotype, and its taxonomic position has been in debate. In this paper, R. weichangensis is redescribed based on eight new specimens and its diagnosis and phylogenetic position are re-examined. This work shows that R. weichangensis was a neotenic form with ossified carpals and tarsals. It has a series of unique combination of characteristics including the vomer with a transverse vomerine tooth row, anterior end of the cultriform process of the parasphenoid indented, basibranchial II triradiate and scapulocoracoid with a rectangular coracoid end. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Regalerpeton, Jeholotriton and Pangerpeton should be placed in the suborder Salamandroidea with three synapomorphies. Moreover, they also share unicapitate ribs with Cryptobranchoidea, which indicates that they represent an important stage of evolution in the Cryptobranchoidea-Salamandroidea split. 围场皇家螈(Regalerpeton weichangensis)于2009年基于一件产自河北围场下白垩统不完整的骨骼印痕标本命名。然而由于标本变形导致皇家螈的部分解剖学特征被曲解,系统发育位置也存在争论。本文基于八件新标本对该蝾螈的鉴定特征和系统发育位置进行了修订。研究显示,皇家螈是一种腕骨和跗骨骨化的幼态持续型蝾螈,具有独特的特征组合,包括犁骨齿列横向排列、副蝶骨前端呈齿状、基鳃骨II呈三射型以及肩胛乌喙骨的乌喙端呈矩形。新的系统发育分析根据三个近裔共性将围场皇家螈、热河螈和胖螈归入蝾螈亚目。此外,它们还与隐鳃鲵亚目共有“肋骨单关节头”这一特征,显示这三种蝾螈可能代表了隐鳃鲵亚目与蝾螈亚目分离时期这一重要演化阶段。

提交时间: 2017-08-24 来自合作期刊:《古脊椎动物学报》 点击量316, 下载量96

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