关键词: coal gangue; aluminum oxide; calcination and activation; atmosphere; KAOLINITE ;
摘要：Coal gangue was calcinated under air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air-hydrogen, and hydrogen atmospheres. The effects of different calcination temperatures and atmospheres on the mineral composition of activated coal gangue were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the acid leaching kinetics of aluminum oxide from coal gangue was investigated with sulfuric acid. It showed that the air atmosphere promoted kaolinite decomposition during coal gangue calcination. The hydrogen atmosphere promoted the activation and decomposition of kaolinite at reaction temperatures exceeding 650 degrees C. The carbon dioxide atmosphere eliminated the influence of residual carbon on coal gangue. When the ratio of acid/coal gangue was 1.5 and reaction temperature was 650 degrees C, the sulfuric acid leaching rate under air, air-hydrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres were 93.66%, 90.90%, 84.06%, 81.91% and 77.54% respectively. The acid leaching reaction process conformed to unreacted shrinking core model of particle unchanged, and was controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction. The reaction kinetic equation for the leaching process was 1-(1-x)1/3=kt with an apparent activation energy of 48.97 kJ/mol.
关键词: dynamic characteristics; n-Decane; supercritical; pyrolysis; N-DECANE; VALIDATION; PRESSURE;
摘要：Regenerative cooling with fuel as the coolant is used in the scramjet engine. In order to grasp the dynamic characteristics of engine fuel supply processes, this article studies the dynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel within the channel. A one-dimensional dynamic model was proved, the thermal energy storage effect, fuel volume effect and chemical dynamic effect have been considered in the model, the ordinary differential equations were solved using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The precision of the model was validated by three groups of experimental data. The effects of input signal, working condition, tube size on the dynamic characteristics of pressure, flow rate, temperature have been simulated. It is found that cracking reaction increased the compressibility of the fuel pyrolysis mixture and lead to longer responding time of outlet flow. The responding time of outlet flow can reach 3s when tube is 5m long which will greatly influence the control performance of the engine thrust system. Meanwhile, when the inlet flow rate appears the step change, the inlet pressure leads to overshoot, the overshoot can reach as much as 100%, such highly transient impulse will result in detrimental effect on fuel pump.
关键词: Furnace; Numerical simulation; Significant figure; Weighted sum of gray; gases model; Optimization; RADIATIVE-TRANSFER; HEAT-TRANSFER; SIMULATION; BOILER; WSGGM;
摘要：The effects of the number of significant figures (NSF) in the interpolation polynomial coefficients (IPCs) of the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGM) on results of numerical investigations and WSGM optimization were investigated. The investigation was conducted using numerical simulations of the processes inside a pulverized coal-fired furnace. The radiative properties of the gas phase were determined using the simple gray gas model (SG), two-term WSGM (W2), and three-term WSGM (W3). Ten sets of the IPCs with the same NSF were formed for every weighting coefficient in both W2 and W3. The average and maximal relative difference values of the flame temperatures, wall temperatures, and wall heat fluxes were determined. The investigation showed that the results of numerical investigations were affected by the NSF unless it exceeded certain value. The increase in the NSF did not necessarily lead to WSGM optimization. The combination of the NSF (CNSF) was the necessary requirement for WSGM optimization.
关键词: District heating; Heat exchanger; Thermal performance optimization; Inverse problem; Lagrange variation; THERMAL-ENERGY STORAGE; TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT; CHP SYSTEMS; ENTRANSY; BUILDINGS; DESIGN;
摘要：Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40% of total building energy usage. In central heating systems, heat is often transferred from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers are installed at heat source, substations and terminals respectively. For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperature, increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving. In this paper, the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established. Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity, the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method. The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger. It also indicates that in order to improve the thermal performance of the whole system, more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small. This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.
关键词: free surface vortex; numerical visualization; curtain wall; air intake;
摘要：Free surface vortex control is vital in a pump sump system because the air absorbed by free surface vortex induces noise, vibration, and cavitation corrosion on the pumping system. In this study, the change of free surface vortex and air absorption in a pump intake has been investigated by the Volume of Fraction (VOF) method with steady multiphase flow model in order to represent the behavior of the free surface vortex exactly. The homogeneous free surface model is used to apply interactions of air and water. The results show that air intake by the free surface vortex motion can be visualized using the iso-surface of air volume fraction. The vortices make an air column from the free surface to the pump intake. Also, it was found that the free surface vortex can be controlled by installing curtain walls.
关键词: small fan; response surface method; entropy method; multi-objective; optimization 68. free surface vortex; numerical visualization; curtain wall; air intake;
摘要：A multi-objective performance optimization method is proposed, and the problem that single structural parameters of small fan balance the optimization between the static characteristics and the aerodynamic noise is solved. In this method, three structural parameters are selected as the optimization variables. Besides, the static pressure efficiency and the aerodynamic noise of the fan are regarded as the multi-objective performance. Furthermore, the response surface method and the entropy method are used to establish the optimization function between the optimization variables and the multi-objective performances. Finally, the optimized model is found when the optimization function reaches its maximum value. Experimental data shows that the optimized model not only enhances the static characteristics of the fan but also obviously reduces the noise. The results of the study will provide some reference for the optimization of multi-objective performance of other types of rotating machinery.
关键词: single-shield; bare-bead thermocouples; temperature measurement; fluid-solid conjugated heat transfer; TEMPERATURE-MEASUREMENT; COMPARTMENT FIRES; ENVIRONMENT; RADIATION;
摘要：To investigate the role of a single shield on steady temperature measurement using thermocouples in hot air flow, a methodology for solving convection, conduction, and radiation in one single model is provided. In order to compare with the experimental results, a cylindrical computational domain is established, which is the same size with the hot calibration wind-tunnel. In the computational domain, two kinds of thermocouples, the bare-bead and the single-shielded thermocouples, are simulated respectively. Surface temperature distribution and the temperature measurement bias of the two typical thermocouples are compared. The simulation results indicate that: 1) The existence of the shield reduces bead surface heat flux and changes the direction of wires inner heat conduction in a colder surrounding; 2) The existence of the shield reduces the temperature measurement bias both by improving bead surface temperature and by reducing surface temperature gradient; 3) The shield effectively reduces the effect of the ambient temperature on the temperature measurement bias; 4) The shield effectively reduces the influence of airflow velocity on the temperature measurement bias.
关键词: cooling; internal blade channels; aerodynamics with heat transfer;
摘要：This paper presents the study of the influence of channel geometry on the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on all the walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on the heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of internal cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include a corner fillets, ribs with fillet radii and a special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which has very realistic features.
关键词: small axial flow fan; inlet guide vanes; static characteristics; aerodynamic noise; internal flow characteristics; AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE;
摘要：Effects of the inlet guide vanes on the static characteristics, aerodynamic noise and internal flow characteristics of a small axial flow fan are studied in this work. The inlet guide vanes with different outlet angle are designed, which are mounted on the casing and located at the upstream of the impeller of the prototype fan. Both steady and unsteady flow simulations are performed. The steady flow is simulated by the calculations of Navier-Stokes equations coupled with RNG k-epsilon turbulence model, while the unsteady flow is computed with large eddy simulation. According to the theoretical analysis, the inlet guide vanes with outlet angle of 60 degrees are regarded as the optimal inlet guide vanes. The static characteristic experiment is carried out in a standard test rig and the aerodynamic noise is tested in a semi-anechoic room. Then, performances of the fan with optimal inlet guide vanes are compared with those of the prototype fan. The results show that there is reasonable agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. It is found that the static characteristics of small axial flow fan is improved obviously after installing the optimal inlet guide vanes. Meanwhile, the optimal inlet guide vanes have effect on reducing noise at the near field, but have little effect on the noise at the far field.
关键词: Non-axisymmetric endwall contouring; Compressor cascade; Corner; separation; Wind tunnel experiments; Optimization;
摘要：The current paper presents experimental and computational results to assess the effectiveness of non-axisymmetric endwall contouring in a compressor linear cascade. The endwall was designed by an endwall design optimization platform at 0 degrees incidence (design condition). The optimization method is based on a genetic algorithm. The design objective was to minimize the total pressure losses. The experiments were carried out in a compressor cascade at a low-speed test facility with a Mach number of 0.15. Four nominal inlet flow angles were chosen to test the performance of non-axisymmetric Contoured Endwall (CEW). A five-hole pressure probe with a head diameter of 2 mm was used to traverse the downstream flow fields of the flat-endwall (FEW) and CEW cascades. Both the measured and predicted results indicated that the implementation of CEW results in smaller corner stall, and reduction of total pressure losses. The CEW gets 15.6% total pressure loss coefficient reduction at design condition, and 22.6% at off-design condition (+7 degrees incidence). And the mechanism of the improvement of CEW based on both measured and calculated results is that the adverse pressure gradient (APG) has been reduced through the groove configuration near the leading edge (LE) of the suction surface (SS).