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当谈“自我参照”时我们在谈什么:人类神经成像中“自我参照”元研究数据库的初步建构

What are we talking about when we talk about "self-reference": A cognitive ontology database of fMRI-based self-reference studies

摘要:自我参照(self-reference,或自我参照加工)是认知心理学与认知神经科学中的重要概念,通常指的是人们处理与自己相关的信息时的认知过程。大量功能磁共振成像实验使用自我参照加工任务,即让被试判断呈现的刺激是否与自己相关,这些研究的结果发现,腹内侧前额叶、后扣带回等大脑皮质中线结构在自我参照条件下表现出更强的激活。由于自我参照加工激活脑网络的特殊性,自我参照加工被广泛用于解释其他的认知神经科学问题。例如,研究者认为自我参照加工是人脑默认网络的核心功能之一,自我参照加工的脑网络可能是跨疾病诊断的神经成像标记物,自我参照加工是主观价值或者情绪产生的核心过程之一。但是,自我参照加工到底指的是何种任务下的何种认知过程?对自我参照加工的不同操作化定义是否对应不同的认知过程以及不同的大脑网络?这些问题涉及到自我参照加工的本体论承诺问题,即自我参照这一构念是否能够表征研究者所希望其表征的心理实体。当前较少有研究对此进行深入地剖析。本研究通过元分析方法对神经成像研究中自我参照的操作化定义进行梳理并分类,形成了元自我:自我参照加工神经成像研究的元研究数据库,基于该数据库的元分析可发现,自我参照的操作化定义的差异将带来自我参照加工所对应大脑网络上的区别。本数据库为后续研究中准确理解自我参照背后的认知过程及神经机制打下基础。同时,为其他类似的认知本体论研究提供参考。

英文摘要:Self-reference (or Self-referential processes) is an important concept in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. It refers to cognitive processing of information relevant to self. Previous fMRI studies found that self-reference activated the cortical midline structures such as the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC). Given the overlap between the brain network of self-reference and that of other effects/phenomena, cognitive neuroscientists had claimed that self-referential processes were the underlying mechanism of many effects/phenomena, including the default network (DMN), mental disorders, and subjective value and emotions generation. However, the cognitive processes represented by the term self-referential are largely under-investigated, despite its importance in cognitive neuroscience. To fill the gap, the current study adopted a meta-analytical approach to survey the variability of operationalization of self-reference in cognitive neuroimaging literature, which culminated in a database titled Meta-Self: A Meta-Research Database for Neuroimaging Studies of Self-Reference. Meta-analyses based on this database revealed that different operationalizations activated different brain networks. With a focus on the neuroimaging data of a single psychological construct, this database will be a valuable asset for understanding the neural mechanism of self-referential processes of human beings. Also, it provides an exemplar for researchers interested in building meta-research databases for their own subfields.

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[V1] 2022-07-02 22:59:39 chinaXiv:202207.00005V1 下载全文
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